Rapid detection of early typhoid fever in endemic community children by the TUBEX O9-antibody test.
ABSTRACT Typhoid remains a global public health problem, and quick accurate immunodiagnosis is needed. Here, we examined the performance of the 5-min TUBEX O9-antibody detection kit in 243 outpatients (mostly children and infants) in their first week of fever and 57 healthy subjects in the Bangladesh community. Based on culture results, TUBEX was 91.2% (31/34) sensitive and 82.3% (172/209) specific in febrile subjects. However, specificity was better in nonfebrile healthy subjects (89.5%, 51/57) or in febrile individuals who serologically had dengue fever (90.5%, 57/63), suggesting that some culture-negative febrile individuals could be truly typhoidal. These individuals were also positive in an anti-crude O9 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the Widal test. Regression analysis of the TUBEX and ELISA results showed good concordance between them, better with the combined IgM-IgG ELISA than with IgM alone, suggesting that TUBEX detects IgM antibodies not necessarily by themselves, as previously reported, but with the help of IgG antibodies.
Article: Evaluation of a newly developed ELISA against Widal, TUBEX-TF and Typhidot for typhoid fever surveillance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Typhoid fever is endemic in many parts of the world and represents a major cause of acute febrile illness (AFI). Rapid and accurate laboratory methods for diagnosis of this disease are needed for both patient care and surveillance situations. Serum samples were collected from AFI patients and used to evaluate the performance of a newly developed ELISA assay that uses a mixture of somatic and flagellar antigens to detect the total antibody response against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection. The levels of Ig isotype response (IgG, IgM and IgA) were also evaluated, and results were compared to those of TUBEX-TF and Typhidot commercial kits. Of 234 culture-confirmed typhoid patients, the total Ig ELISA diagnosed 93% compared to 71% using Widal test. This sensitivity level (93%) is higher than that observed for the individual Ig ELISAs (IgG 75%; IgM 79%; IgA 57%) and the commercial tests TUBEX-TF (75%), Typhidot IgM (63%) and Typhidot IgG (28%). An agreement of 78% was achieved between the total Ig ELISA and Widal test. The average specificity of the ELISA was 96%. Using ELISA, up to 200 samples can be tested per run with cost per test at US$0.20. The developed ELISA shows superior sensitivity and specificity, when compared to Widal, TUBEX-TF and Typhidot assays, is more cost effective and allows higher throughput. This method is highly recommended for active surveillance studies or outbreak investigations of typhoid fever.The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 01/2011; 5(3):169-75. · 1.19 Impact Factor
Article: Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex®) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful. A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness using blood culture as gold standard. Evaluation was done considering blood culture confirmed S. Typhi with non-typhi salmonella (NTS) and non - salmonella isolates as controls as well as with non-salmonella isolates only. Of 139 samples tested with Tubex, 33 were positive for S. Typhi in blood culture, 49 were culture-confirmed NTS infections, and 57 were other non-salmonella infections. Thirteen hemolyzed samples were excluded. Using all non - S. Typhi isolates as controls, we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 89%. When the analysis was repeated excluding NTS from the pool of controls we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97%. There was no significant difference in the test performance using the two different control groups (p > 0.05). This first evaluation of the Tubex test in an African setting showed a similar performance to those seen in some Asian settings. Comparison with the earlier results of a Widal test using the same samples showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) for any of the performance indicators, irrespective of the applied control group.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2011; 11:147. · 3.12 Impact Factor