Exercise Capacity and Body Mass as Predictors of Mortality Among Male Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes
ABSTRACT To demonstrate the relation of exercise capacity and BMI to mortality in a population of male veterans with type 2 diabetes.
After excluding two underweight patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), the study population comprised 831 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 61 +/- 9 years) referred for exercise testing for clinical reasons between 1995 and 2006. Exercise capacity was determined from a maximal exercise test and measured in metabolic equivalents (METs). Patients were classified both according to BMI category (18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, and > or =30 kg/m2) and by exercise capacity (<5.0 or > or =5.0 maximal METs). The association among exercise capacity, BMI, other clinical variables, and all-cause mortality was assessed by Cox proportional hazards. Study participants were followed for mortality up to 30 June 2006.
During a mean follow-up of 4.8 +/- 3.0 years, 112 patients died, for an average annual mortality rate of 2.2%. Each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity conferred a 10% survival benefit (hazard ratio 0.90 [95% CI 0.82-0.98]; P = 0.01), but BMI was not significantly associated with mortality. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, examination year, BMI, presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD risk factors, diabetic patients achieving <5 maximal METs were 70% more likely to die (1.70 [1.13-2.54]) than those achieving > or =5 maximal METs.
There was a strong inverse association between exercise capacity and mortality in this cohort of men with documented diabetes, and this relationship was independent of BMI.
- SourceAvailable from: Victor F Froelicher
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ABSTRACT: Other than diet and medication, exercise is considered one of the three cornerstones of good diabetes treatment. Nevertheless, current clinical guidelines on Type 2 diabetes provide no detailed information on the modalities of effective exercise intervention in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Based on a review of currently available literature, exercise modalities are being identified to maximize the benefits of exercise intervention in the treatment of different Type 2 diabetes subpopulations. Both endurance and resistance types of exercise have equal therapeutic strength to improve metabolic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes. When applying endurance-type exercise, energy expenditure should be equivalent to approximately 1.7-2.1 MJ/exercise bout on 3 but preferably 5 days/wk. In sarcopenic or severely deconditioned patients with Type 2 diabetes, focus should lie on the implementation of resistance-type exercise to attenuate and/or reverse the decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Before choosing the most appropriate exercise modalities, the patient's disease stage should be well characterized, and an ECG-stress test should be considered. Based on baseline aerobic fitness, level of co-morbidities, body composition, and muscle strength, patients should be provided with an individually tailored exercise intervention program to optimize therapeutic value. A multidisciplinary individualized approach and continued exercise training under personal supervision is essential to enhance compliance and allow long-term health benefits of an exercise intervention program.Journal of Applied Physiology 11/2007; 103(4):1113-20. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00566.2007 · 3.43 Impact Factor