Musculoskeletal conditions (MSC) are common throughout the world and their impact on individuals is diverse and manifold. Knowledge of the determinants for disability and of strategies for prevention and rehabilitation management according to the scientific evidence is critical for reducing the burden of MSC. The first section of this chapter reviews the evidence for common determinants of functioning and disability in patients with MSC. We have focussed on environmental factors (EF) and personal factors (PF) and have structured them according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. The second section discusses prevention strategies. Generally, prevention needs to address those EF and PF that were presented in the first section. The final section describes modern principles of rehabilitation and reviews the evidence for specific rehabilitation interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The overall objective of this doctoral thesis is to address some of the conditions necessary to routinely perform alongside economic evaluations of rehabilitation programs. The specific aims are to 1) present a standardized instrument to collect data about health care resource use, 2) identify major cost categories of direct medical costs to be used in comparative economic evaluations of subjects with musculoskeletal diseases and 3) identify determinants of direct medical costs among subjects with musculoskeletal diseases. This thesis is therefore subdivided into three parts. In the first part the development of a standardized instrument to collect health care resource use in the context of rehabilitation is described and lessons learned are discussed. In the next part major direct medical costs categories among patients with musculoskeletal conditions undergoing outpatient rehabilitation are identified. Lastly, the determinants of the direct medical costs as well as direct medical costs beyond the median incurred by chronic musculoskeletal patients are examined. Each of these parts contain a specific discussion section referring to its specific results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies of waterflood and steamdrive in petroleum
reservoirs have revealed that unwanted extension of hydrofractures is
caused primarily by aggressive actions taken by conventional PI or PID
controllers during injector start-up, or by operating near
hydrofracturing pressure. The extension has resulted in reservoir damage
and irreversible lost oil production. In this paper, we consider
CalResources Phase III steam injection pilot in the South Belridge field
of California. For each injector in this pilot, a neural network model
is identified by using historical data on injection-fluid flow rate,
well-head pressure, depth to the top of perforation, and the length of
perforated interval. Differential geometric well-head pressure
controllers are synthesized by using the neural network models. The
satisfactory performance of the neural network model-based controllers
is demonstrated, via numerical simulations
American Control Conference, 1997. Proceedings of the 1997; 07/1997
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