Identification and functional analysis of a novel human CYP2E1 far upstream enhancer
ABSTRACT Both transcriptional and post-transcriptional CYP2E1 regulatory mechanisms are known, resulting in 20-fold or greater variation in CYP2E1 expression. To evaluate functional regulatory elements controlling transcription, CYP2E1 promoter constructs were used to make adenovirus vectors containing CYP2E1 promoter-driven luciferase reporters for analyses in both primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. A 1.2-kilobase pair portion of the CYP2E1 promoter was associated with 5- to 10-fold greater luciferase activity. This upstream region contained five direct repeats of 59 base pairs (bp) that increased thymidine kinase-driven luciferase reporter activity in HepG2 cells more than 5-fold, regardless of orientation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) identified sequence-specific nuclear protein binding to the 59-bp repeats that was dependent on a 17-bp sequence containing a canonical GATA binding site (WGATAR). Competitive and supershift EMSA identified the participation of GATA4, another GATA family member or GATA-like factor, and a third factor unrelated to the GATA family. Involvement of the tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome-1 factor, which also binds a GATA sequence, was eliminated. Rather, competitive EMSA using known binding sequences for the orphan nuclear receptors, steroidogenic factor-1 (or NR5A1), and fetoprotein transcription factor (or NR5A2) implicated an NR5A member in binding a sequence overlapping the canonical GATA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated in vivo binding of NR5A2 to the enhancer sequence in human hepatocytes. The enhancer sequence is conserved within the human population but seems species-specific. The identification of this novel enhancer and its putative mechanism adds to the complexities of human CYP2E1 regulation.
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ABSTRACT: This work examines the involvement of chromatin looping in the transcriptional regulation of two epialleles of the maize (Zea mays) b1 gene, B-I and B'. These two epialleles are tissue-specifically regulated and are involved in paramutation. B-I and B' are expressed at high and low levels, respectively. A hepta-repeat approximately 100 kb upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) is required for both paramutation and high b1 expression. Using chromosome conformation capture, we show that the hepta-repeat physically interacts with the TSS region in a tissue- and expression level-specific manner. Multiple repeats are required to stabilize this interaction. High b1 expression is mediated by a multiloop structure; besides the hepta-repeat, other sequence regions physically interact with the TSS as well, and these interactions are epiallele- and expression level-specific. Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements uncovered multiple interacting regions as potentially regulatory.The Plant Cell 04/2009; 21(3):832-42. DOI:10.1105/tpc.108.064329 · 9.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Regulatory elements play an important role in the variability of individual responses to drug treatment. This has been established through studies on three classes of elements that regulate RNA and protein abundance: promoters, enhancers and microRNAs. Each of these elements, and genetic variants within them, are being characterized at an exponential pace by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In this review, we outline examples of how each class of element affects drug response via regulation of drug targets, transporters and enzymes. We also discuss the impact of NGS technologies such as chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and the ramifications of new techniques such as high-throughput chromosome capture (Hi-C), chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) and massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA). NGS approaches are generating data faster than they can be analyzed, and new methods will be required to prioritize laboratory results before they are ready for the clinic. However, there is no doubt that these approaches will bring about a systems-level understanding of the interplay between genetic variants and drug response. An understanding of the importance of regulatory variants in pharmacogenomics will facilitate the identification of responders versus non-responders, the prevention of adverse effects and the optimization of therapies for individual patients.Genome Medicine 05/2012; 4(5):45. DOI:10.1186/gm344 · 4.94 Impact Factor