Genetics of essential tremor.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Brain (Impact Factor: 10.23). 07/2007; 130(Pt 6):1456-64. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awm018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Essential tremor (ET), the cause of which remains poorly understood, is one of the most common neurological disorders. While environmental agents have been proposed to play a role, genetic factors are believed to contribute to its onset. Thus far, three gene loci (ETM1 on 3q13, ETM2 on 2p24.1 and a locus on 6p23) have been identified in patients and families with the disorder. In addition, a Ser9Gly variant in the dopamine D3 receptor gene on 3q13 has been suggested to be a risk factor. Moreover, genetically deficient animal models express a phenotype that overlaps with some clinical characteristics of the human form of the illness. Further analyses of these genetic abnormalities may lead to the identification of causative mutations and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this common movement disorder.

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    ABSTRACT: Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. The prevalence of ET varies substantially among studies. In Korea, there is no well-designed epidemiological study of the prevalence of ET. Thus, we investigated the prevalence of ET in a community in Korea. Standardized interviews and in-person neurological examinations were performed in a random sample of the elderly aged 65 yr or older. Next, movement specialists attempted to diagnose ET clinically. People who showed equivocal parkinsonian features underwent dopamine transporter imaging using [(123)I]-FP-CIT SPECT, to differentiate ET from parkinsonism. A total of 714 subjects participated in this population-based study. Twenty six of these subjects were diagnosed as having ET. The crude prevalence of ET was 3.64 per 100 persons. Age, gender, or education period were not different between the ET patients and the non-ET subjects. The prevalence of ET was slightly lower than those reported in previous studies. Further studies including more subjects are warranted.
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 12/2014; 29(12):1694-8. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We analyzed the coding region of the Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) gene in familial essential tremor (ET) and reviewed previous studies assessing FUS variants in ET.BackgroundET is often a familial disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. A potentially causative variant in FUS has been identified in one ET family. Subsequent studies described further putatively causal variants.Methods We performed DNA sequencing of FUS in 85 unrelated, familial German and French definite ET patients.ResultsWe did not find novel variants affecting the protein sequence. Seven previously published studies and data from the exome variant server (EVS) showed that rare exonic variants in FUS are not more frequent in ET than in the general population.Conclusions Our findings provide no evidence for a role of rare genetic variants in the pathogenesis of ET, apart from the initially published FUS mutation segregating in a large ET family.
    Movement Disorders 01/2015; · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Essential tremor is a common movement disorder with a strong heritable component. Large families with inherited forms of essential tremor have undergone genetic analyses by different approaches. However, our knowledge of genetic variants unequivocally linked to essential tremor is remarkably limited. Several explanations have been put forth to explain this challenge, including the possibility of mutations in non-coding areas of the genome. Methods: We encountered a family with highly penetrant, autosomal dominant tremor. We hypothesized that, if a single coding gene mutation was responsible for the phenotype, novel genetic tools would allow us to identify it. We employed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in 17 members of this family followed by next generation whole-exome sequencing in five affected subjects. Results: We did not identify any copy number variant or mutation that segregated with the disease phenotype. Discussion: This study emphasizes the remarkably challenging field of tremor genetics and indicates that future studies should perhaps shift to analysis of the noncoding genome.
    Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 10/2014;

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