HIV behavioral surveillance among the US general population

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
Public Health Reports (Impact Factor: 1.55). 02/2007; 122 Suppl 1(Suppl1):24-31.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HIV behavioral surveillance in the United States is conducted among three groups: infected populations, high-risk populations, and the general population. We describe the general population component of the overall U.S. HIV behavioral surveillance program and identify priority analyses. This component comprises several data systems (ongoing, systematic, population-based surveys) through which data on risk behaviors and HIV testing are collected, analyzed, and disseminated. Multiple data systems are needed to balance differences in scope and purpose, as well as strengths and weaknesses of the sampling frames, mode of administration, and frequency of data collection. In a concentrated epidemic, such as in the United States, general population data play a small but important role in monitoring the potential spread of infection more broadly, particularly given increases in HIV transmission through heterosexual contact.

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    • "Accurate surveillance data on sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is crucial for the prevention, treatment and control of such diseases [1]. However, most of the current STD surveillance studies focus only on specific high risk groups [2], since population-based surveys are expensive and difficult to implement [3]. In many countries, case reporting remains the mainstay of surveillance on STD [4] and does not include data obtained from patients of private patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Existing surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and reproductive tract infections (RTI) are important but often ineffective, as they tend to omit cases diagnosed by private-practice doctors During a 15-day study period, 277 private-practice doctors and all public-practice doctors of all the eight local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) in Hong Kong filled out daily a standard log-form, recording the number of patients diagnosed with particular types of STD/RTI. Projections for all local private-practice and public-practice doctors were made by the stratification method. Data showed that 0.75% of private patients and 40.92% of public patients presented the listed STD/RTI syndromes. It is projected that 12,504 adults were diagnosed with such syndromes by all local private-practice (10,204) or public-practice doctors (2,300); 0.22% (male: 0.26%; female: 0.18%) of the local adult population would fall into this category. The ratio of STD/RTI cases, diagnosed by private-practice versus public-practice doctors, was 4:1. Of the participating private-practice doctors, 96% found the process easy to administer and 75% believed that it was feasible for such a STD/RTI surveillance system to be implemented annually. Surveillance of STD/RTI based only on data obtained from the public health system is inadequate. Data obtained from public-practice and private-practice doctors are very different and the majority of the patients presented their STD/RTI syndromes to private-practice doctors. The proposed, improved surveillance system is feasible and has the strengths of involving both private-practice and public-practice medical practitioners and being well accepted by private-practice doctors.
    BMC Public Health 04/2011; 11:254. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-254 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Surveillance of genital warts as well as other STDs should provide accurate and timely population estimates on prevalence and incidence trends[9]. Most of the STD surveillance studies have focused only on some specific high risk groups [10] as population-based surveys are difficult to implement[11]. In many countries, case reporting remains the mainstay of STD surveillance and very limited data are obtained from private patients[12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through 18, 2009), the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. A total of 721 (0.94%) adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1%) were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female) during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females). The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 09/2010; 10(1):272. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-272 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "We might also consider establishing a system for behavioural surveillance to assess the impact of these intervention efforts and trends in respiratory hygiene practices in the community. Behavioural surveillance has been an integral part of HIV ⁄ AIDS surveillance providing useful information for epidemiologic trends, program design and evaluation (Lansky et al. 2007a,b; Allen et al. 2009). For respiratory surveillance, a specially tailored assessment tool, similar to the one used in our study, will enable us to objectively measure the intended behaviour change and gauge our progress towards optimal respiratory hygiene. "
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    ABSTRACT: To identify existing respiratory hygiene risk practices, and guide the development of interventions for improving respiratory hygiene. We selected a convenience sample of 80 households and 20 schools in two densely populated communities in Bangladesh, one urban and one rural. We observed and recorded respiratory hygiene events with potential to spread viruses such as coughing, sneezing, spitting and nasal cleaning using a standardized assessment tool. In 907 (81%) of 1122 observed events, households' participants coughed or sneezed into the air (i.e. uncovered), 119 (11%) into their hands and 83 (7%) into their clothing. Twenty-two per cent of women covered their coughs and sneezes compared to 13% of men (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.3). Twenty-seven per cent of persons living in households with a reported monthly income of >72.6 US$ covered their coughs or sneezes compared to 13% of persons living in households with lower income (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2). In 956 (85%) of 1126 events, school participants coughed or sneezed into the air and 142 (13%) into their hands. Twenty-seven per cent of coughs/sneezes in rural schools were covered compared to 10% of coughs/sneezes in urban schools (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.6). Hand washing was never observed after participants coughed or sneezed into their hands. There is an urgent need to develop culturally appropriate, cost-effective and scalable interventions to improve respiratory hygiene practices and to assess their effectiveness in reducing respiratory pathogen transmission.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2010; 15(6):762-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02531.x · 2.33 Impact Factor
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