Perforin deficiency characterized by markedly reduced cytotoxic T and natural killer cell activities is one type of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). FHL is a fatal inherited disease, and treatment with stem cell transplantation has resulted in a normal activity of killer cells. We herein report a case of FHL with perforin deficiency that was primarily treated by the administration of liposteroid to reduce hypercytokinemia. Thereafter, allogenic bone marrow transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning was successfully performed without any adverse effects on the patient's physical or developmental status. These observations suggest that this treatment strategy might thus be recommended in infants with FHL to reduce treatment-related complications, especially in patients with relatively mild clinical courses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation still represents the treatment of choice for most patients with this disease.
We retrospectively analyzed 61 patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis who underwent HSCT over a 17-year period at nine centers affiliated to the Italian Pediatric Hematology Oncology Association (AIEOP). The median time from diagnosis to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 0.6 years (range, 0.13-5). The donor for the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was either a relative (43%) or an unrelated volunteer (57%). Fifty-four patients (89%) had a complete genetic study, which led to the diagnoses of FHL2, due to perforin defect (21 patients), FHL3, due to Munc 13-4 defect (14 patients), Griscelli disease (2 patients), X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (1 patient), and CATCH22 syndrome (1 patient). No mutations were found in the remaining 15 patients. Twenty-one patients had neurological involvement at diagnosis.
Three patients failed to engraft. Grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease occurred in 31% and 17% of patients, respectively. Overall, 39 patients are alive (64%), 15 died of toxicity, 6 of progressive disease and 1 of sudden death. The 8-year overall survival probability was 58.6% (95% confidence interval, 42-72), while the cumulative incidence of transplantation-related mortality was 25.7% (95% confidence interval, 16-40). The outcome of patients with a known genetic defect was comparable to that of patients without mutation. Neurological sequelae were reported in seven patients, six of whom had central nervous system disease at diagnosis.
These data confirm that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation represents a curative treatment for a large proportion of patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, irrespective of the underlying genetic defect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an important complication in hematologic malignancies and stem-cell transplantation (SCT). However, there are limited data characterizing IFI in children. The clinical feature of IFI after chemotherapy and SCT were analyzed in 334 pediatric patients treated at Hokkaido University Hospital from 1997 to 2006. The cumulative incidence of IFI was 6.9%; this comprised cases of proven, probable and possible IFI at rates of 1.2%, 3.0%, and 2.7%, respectively. The infected lesions were lung in 14 patients, liver in 5 patients, brain in 3 patients, fungemia in 2 patients, kidney in 1 patient, and endophthalmitis in 1 patient. The mortality of IFI was 48.2%, excluding patients who died due to relapse and interstitial pneumonitis; in particular, 71.4% patients with a lung lesion (10/14) died due to IFI. Fifty-nine pediatric patients died in our institution over the 10-year period of the study and IFI was the direct cause of death in 18.6% (11/59) of the patients. Risk factors for IFI with chemotherapy and SCT were also analyzed. Univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis older than 10 years, relapse of original disease, long-term administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were the risk factors for IFI. All patients with IFI received long-term antibiotic therapy. AML was most strongly associated using a multivariate analysis. The prognosis of IFI has been expected poor; therefore, prevention of this condition, especially for older patients with AML, would be important.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 2-substituted xanthone derivatives 8-20 containing selected allyl, cinnamyl, morpholine, and imidazole moieties were synthesized and tested for their antifungal and antibacterial in-vitro properties. Of the newly synthesized derivatives, ten revealed antifungal activity especially against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the biggest inhibition zones ranged 35 mm for 11 and 13). 2-(3-(Allylamino)propoxy)-9H-xanthen-9-one hydrochloride 9 inhibited growth of all of the examined fungal species. Significant efficacy against evaluated yeasts and dermatophytes was also observed for 6-chloro-2-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one derivatives 11-13 containing encyclic amine moieties. Additionally, compounds 9, 11, and 12 hindered development of bacteria species but in a lesser degree. They were efficacious against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis.
Archiv der Pharmazie 01/2009; 342(1):9-18. DOI:10.1002/ardp.200800089 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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