Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.
ABSTRACT Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Cluster C personality disorder traits have been observed in substance use disorders and linked with poorer outcome. One potential factor which may cause these disturbances in personality function is alexithymia, or the inability to name and express emotion. There may be other proximate factors which moderate the impact of alexithymia on the expression of cluster C traits, such as metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems. To examine the possibility that mastery mediated the effects of alexithymia on cluster C traits, we assessed each of these constructs using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and SCID II among 58 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance misuse disorders in a residential setting. Results of a multiple regression revealed that, after controlling for symptom severity and severity of substance misuse history, metacognitive mastery moderated the effect of alexithymia on number of cluster C traits. A median split and subsequent ANCOVA revealed that participants with higher levels of alexithymia and poorer metacognitive mastery had more cluster C traits than the other groups. These findings may have clinical implications, suggesting that patients with substance use disorders may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery.Addictive behaviors 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.11.007 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While deficits in metacognition have been observed in schizophrenia (SZ), it is less clear whether these are specific to the disorder. Accordingly, this study compared metacognitive abilities of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) and examined the degree to which neurocognition contributed to metacognitive deficits in both groups. Participants were 30 patients with SZ and 30 with BD. Metacognitive capacity was measured using the Metacognition Assessment Scale Abbreviated (MAS-A). This scale comprises four domains: self-reflectivity, understanding others׳ minds, decentration and mastery. Verbal memory, executive functioning and symptoms were concurrently assessed. Group comparisons revealed that SZ patients had greater deficits in metacognitive self-reflectivity, which correctly classified 85.2% of patients with SZ in a logistic regression. Self-reflectivity and understanding others׳ minds were related to verbal memory and executive functioning in the SZ group, but not in the BD group. Furthermore, greater positive and general psychotic symptoms were associated with poorer metacognition in SZ. Results suggest SZ involves unique deficits in the ability to self-reflect and that these deficits may be uniquely linked with neurocognition.Psychiatry Research 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.06.040 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the Internet is used effectively in many areas of life, some users experience problems because of over-use due to a lack of control. The diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction include disruptions in family relationships, but adequate data on the attachment styles and family functioning associated with this condition are limited. This study aimed to investigate the attachment styles and family functioning of patients with Internet addiction. The sample included 30 male patients consecutively admitted to the Bakırköy Mental Health and Research Hospital Internet Addiction Outpatient Clinic, who were diagnosed in clinical interviews as having Internet addiction according to Young's (1998) criteria. Thirty healthy males who were matched with the experimental group in terms of sociodemographic characteristics were included as control subjects. Both groups provided sociodemographic data and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-r (ECR-r) and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Patients with Internet addiction had higher BDI scores (P<.001) and higher attachment anxiety subscores on ECR-r (P<.001) compared with those in the control group. Patients with Internet addiction evaluated their family functioning as more negative and reported problems in every aspect addressed by the FAD. Scores on the FAD behaviour control, affective responsiveness, and problem-solving subscales (P<.05) and on the FAD communication, roles, and general functioning subscales (P<.001) were significantly higher in the patient compared with the control group. Patients with Internet addiction have more anxious attachment styles as well as prominent disruptions in family functioning. Thus, it may be important to evaluate the attachment styles and family functioning of patients with Internet addiction. Indeed, comprehensive treatment approaches including other family members may make important contributions to treatment success.General hospital psychiatry 10/2013; 36(2). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.10.012 · 2.90 Impact Factor