Disruption of diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKD) associated with seizures in humans and mice.
ABSTRACT We report a female patient with a de novo balanced translocation, 46,X,t(X;2)(p11.2;q37)dn, who exhibits seizures, capillary abnormality, developmental delay, infantile hypotonia, and obesity. The 2q37 breakpoint observed in association with the seizure phenotype is of particular interest, because it lies near loci implicated in epilepsy in humans and mice. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of the translocation breakpoints showed that no known genes are disrupted at Xp11.2, whereas diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKD) is disrupted at 2q37. Expression studies in Drosophila and mouse suggest that DGKD is involved in central nervous system development and function. Electroencephalographic assessment of Dgkd mutant mice revealed abnormal epileptic discharges and electrographic seizures in three of six homozygotes. These findings implicate DGKD disruption by the t(X;2)(p11.2;q37)dn in the observed phenotype and support a more general role for DGKD in the etiology of seizures.
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most frequent cause of hereditary grand mal seizures. We previously mapped and narrowed a region associated with JME on chromosome 6p12-p11 (EJM1). Here, we describe a new gene in this region, EFHC1, which encodes a protein with an EF-hand motif. Mutation analyses identified five missense mutations in EFHC1 that cosegregated with epilepsy or EEG polyspike wave in affected members of six unrelated families with JME and did not occur in 382 control individuals. Overexpression of EFHC1 in mouse hippocampal primary culture neurons induced apoptosis that was significantly lowered by the mutations. Apoptosis was specifically suppressed by SNX-482, an antagonist of R-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (Ca(v)2.3). EFHC1 and Ca(v)2.3 immunomaterials overlapped in mouse brain, and EFHC1 coimmunoprecipitated with the Ca(v)2.3 C terminus. In patch-clamp analysis, EFHC1 specifically increased R-type Ca(2+) currents that were reversed by the mutations associated with JME.Nature Genetics 09/2004; 36(8):842-9. · 35.53 Impact Factor