Ultrastructure of the gingiva in cardiac patients treated with or without calcium channel blockers.
ABSTRACT In the last few years, several studies have suggested that periodontal diseases are related to the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our objective was to study the ultrastructural morphology of the gingiva from cardiac patients, some of whom were treated and some not with calcium channel blockers compared to a control group.
Fifty-five patients were studied and grouped in the following way: (a) healthy group (HG) (n=12) healthy patients with at least two pockets between 3 and 5 mm; (b) cardiac group (CG) (n=12) patients with cardiac disease untreated with calcium channel blockers; (c) diltiazem group (DG) (n=13) cardiac patients treated with diltiazem; (d) nifedipine group (NG) (n=18) cardiac patients treated with nifedipine.
Ultrastructural studies in the CG showed inflammatory cells, collagen fibers disruption and a more extended morphologically compromised fibroblast mitochondria. Morphometric studies in CG showed mitochondria that were impaired in number but increased in volume, suggesting metabolic cell suffering. In DG and NG, morphometric data were similar to HG. The presence of myofibroblasts and collagen neosynthesis was detected in DG and NG.
Our data showed differences in the ultrastructure of the gingival fibroblasts between the studied groups; the DG and NG showed features that could be interpreted as an attempt to restore the cellular metabolic function.
Article: Diltiazem did not induce gingival overgrowth in rats. A clinical, histological and histometric analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The administration of calcium channel blockers has been associated with gingival overgrowth. However, there are few studies in humans or animals that evaluated the effect of diltiazem on gingival tissues. The present study assessed the influence of diltiazem, at different dosages and treatment duration, on gingival tissues of rats, using clinical, histological and histometric analyses. Eighty young male rats were separated into eight groups according to the dosage and duration of treatment. Rats were treated for 20 or 40 days with a daily subcutaneous injection of 5, 20 or 50 mg/kg of body weight of diltiazem. The results confirmed that diltiazem did not induce gingival overgrowth in rats. For all animals, the evaluation did not show gingival alterations regardless of the dosages and periods of treatment. The histometric analysis showed no significant change in the area of epithelium and connective tissues, although after 40 days of treatment a decrease in the area of connective tissue was observed, without statistically significant difference from control groups. Within the limits of this study, we suggest that diltiazem did not induce gingival overgrowth.Brazilian Oral Research 19(3):163-8.
Article: Clinical indicators of periodontal disease in patients with coronary heart disease: a 10 years longitudinal study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is evidence about a possible relationship existing between periodontal diseases and coronary heart disease. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to investigate the changes in periodontal evolution after etiological periodontal treatment, comparing a healthy control group with another having coronary heart disease. The study included initially 55 patients of which 44 finished it. They were placed into two groups: Healthy Control Group (HCG) n =9, and Coronary Heart Disease Group (CHDG) n=35. The gingival level (GL), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured to compare the periodontal status in both groups. The patients were examined and etiological periodontal treatment was performed and they were then examined at the end of 1 and 10 years. Statistical method: A one way-ANOVA and a MR-ANOVA were established; significance p<0.05. No significant differences between both groups were detected on the first visit (p>0.5). However, at the second visit the CHDG presented a significantly higher PD (p<0.05) and PI (p<0.01). CHDG patients gradually increase PD through time and in comparison to the control group (p<0.041). CHDG patients present a significantly higher CAL loss (p<0.0385) and a significant increase in PI (p<0.0041) at the end of one year, while on the third visit no significant differences were detected in any of these indices. Likewise, a similar fact can be observed on evaluating BOP at the end of ten years causal treatment, a smaller decrease in the cardiac group was observed in regards to the initial values (p<0.001). Patients with coronary heart disease showed a worse evolution of periodontal indices than healthy ones, when referring to probing depth, plaque index and bleeding on probing index.Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal 12/2011; 17(4):e569-74.