Article

Increased formation of hepatic N2-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2-knockout mice treated with ethanol.

Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.64). 12/2007; 28(11):2363-6. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgm057
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT N2-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG) is a major DNA adduct induced by acetaldehyde. Although it is unstable in the nucleoside form, it is relatively stable when present in DNA. In this study, we analyzed three acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts, N2-ethylidene-dG, N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N2-Et-dG) and alpha-methyl-gamma-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (alpha-Me-gamma-OH-PdG) in the liver DNA of aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh)-2-knockout mice to determine the influence of alcohol consumption and the Aldh2 genotype on the levels of DNA damage. In control Aldh2+/+ mice, the level of N2-ethylidene-dG adduct in liver DNA was 1.9 +/- 0.7 adducts per 10(7) bases and was not significantly different than that of Aldh2+/- and -/- mice. In alcohol-fed mice (20% ethanol for 5 weeks), the adduct levels of Aldh2+/+, +/- and -/- mice were 7.9 +/- 1.8, 23.3 +/- 4.0 and 79.9 +/- 14.2 adducts per 10(7) bases, respectively, and indicated that adduct level was alcohol and Aldh2 genotype dependent. In contrast, an alcohol- or Aldh2 genotype-dependent increase was not observed for alpha-Me-gamma-OH-PdG, and N2-Et-dG was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. In conclusion, the risk of formation of N2-ethylidene-dG in model animal liver in vivo is significantly higher in the Aldh2-deficient population and these results may contribute to our understanding of in vivo adduct formation in humans.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
115 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA adducts represent an important category of biomarkers for detection and exposure surveillance of potential carcinogenic and genotoxic chemicals in the environment. Sensitive and specific analytical methods are required to detect and differentiate low levels of adducts from native DNA from in vivo exposure. In addition to biomonitoring of environmental pollutants, analytical methods have been developed for structural identification of adducts which provides fundamental information for determining the toxic pathway of hazardous chemicals. In order to achieve the required sensitivity, mass spectrometry has been increasingly utilized to quantify adducts at low levels as well as to obtain structural information. Furthermore, separation techniques such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis can be coupled to mass spectrometry to increase the selectivity. This review will provide an overview of advances in detection of adducted and modified DNA by mass spectrometry with a focus on the analysis of nucleosides since 2007. Instrument advances, sample and instrument considerations, and recent applications will be summarized in the context of hazard assessment. Finally, advances in biomonitoring applying mass spectrometry will be highlighted. Most importantly, the usefulness of DNA adducts measurement and detection will be comprehensively discussed as a tool for assessment of in vitro and in vivo exposure to environmental pollutants.
    Talanta 12/2014; 130C:475-494. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) knockout mouse is an animal model of a polymorphism at the human ALDH2 locus (ALDH2*2). To detect differences in the basic phenotype of this animal model, lifespan, body weight (BW), and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level were evaluated.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, are the definite carcinogens for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and reduced catalytic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which detoxifies acetaldehyde, increases the risk for ESCC. However, it remains unknown whether the ALDH2 genotype influences the level of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage in the esophagus after ethanol ingestion. In the present study, we administered ethanol orally or intraperitoneally to Aldh2-knockout and control mice, and we quantified the level of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage, especially N(2) -ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2) -ethylidene-dG), in the esophagus. In the model of oral ethanol administration, the esophageal N(2) -ethylidene-dG level was significantly higher in Aldh2-knockout mice compared with control mice. Similarly, in the model of intraperitoneal ethanol administration, in which the esophagus is not exposed directly to the alcohol solution, the esophageal N(2) -ethylidene-dG level was also elevated in Aldh2-knockout mice. This result indicates that circulating ethanol-derived acetaldehyde causes esophageal DNA damage, and that the extent of damage is influenced by knockout of Aldh2. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest the importance of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage which is induced in the esophagus of individuals with ALDH2 gene impairment. This provides a physiological basis for understanding alcohol-related esophageal carcinogenesis.
    American journal of cancer research. 01/2014; 4(3):279-84.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
7 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014