Increased formation of hepatic N2-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2-knockout mice treated with ethanol.
ABSTRACT N2-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG) is a major DNA adduct induced by acetaldehyde. Although it is unstable in the nucleoside form, it is relatively stable when present in DNA. In this study, we analyzed three acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts, N2-ethylidene-dG, N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N2-Et-dG) and alpha-methyl-gamma-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (alpha-Me-gamma-OH-PdG) in the liver DNA of aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh)-2-knockout mice to determine the influence of alcohol consumption and the Aldh2 genotype on the levels of DNA damage. In control Aldh2+/+ mice, the level of N2-ethylidene-dG adduct in liver DNA was 1.9 +/- 0.7 adducts per 10(7) bases and was not significantly different than that of Aldh2+/- and -/- mice. In alcohol-fed mice (20% ethanol for 5 weeks), the adduct levels of Aldh2+/+, +/- and -/- mice were 7.9 +/- 1.8, 23.3 +/- 4.0 and 79.9 +/- 14.2 adducts per 10(7) bases, respectively, and indicated that adduct level was alcohol and Aldh2 genotype dependent. In contrast, an alcohol- or Aldh2 genotype-dependent increase was not observed for alpha-Me-gamma-OH-PdG, and N2-Et-dG was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. In conclusion, the risk of formation of N2-ethylidene-dG in model animal liver in vivo is significantly higher in the Aldh2-deficient population and these results may contribute to our understanding of in vivo adduct formation in humans.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Katsumaro Tomokuni, Feb 05, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Nanosized-magnetite (MGT) is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields; however, its toxicological properties are not well documented. In our previous report, MGT showed genotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems, and it was suggested that inflammatory responses exist behind the genotoxicity. To further clarify mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity, a comprehensive DNA adduct (DNA adductome) analysis was conducted using DNA samples derived from the lungs of mice exposed to MGT. In total, 30 and 42 types of DNA adducts were detected in the vehicle control and MGT-treated groups, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) against a subset of DNA adducts was applied and several adducts, which are deduced to be formed by inflammation or oxidative stress, as the case of etheno-deoxycytidine (εdC), revealed higher contributions to MGT exposure. By quantitative-LC-MS/MS analysis, εdC levels were significantly higher in MGT-treated mice than those of the vehicle control. Taken together with our previous data, it is suggested that inflammatory responses might be involved in the genotoxicity induced by MGT in the lungs of mice.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 02/2015; 16(2):3474-3492. DOI:10.3390/ijms16023474 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2015; 815:113-30. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-09614-8_7 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse leads to tissue damage including a variety of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms by which this damage occurs remain to be fully understood. The primary enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1, (CYP2E1), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Genetic polymorphisms in human genes encoding these enzymes are associated with increased risks of alcohol-related tissue damage, as well as differences in alcohol consumption and dependence. Oxidative stress resulting from ethanol oxidation is one established pathogenic event in alcohol-induced toxicity. Ethanol metabolism generates free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has been associated with diminished glutathione (GSH) levels as well as changes in other antioxidant mechanisms. In addition, the formation of protein and DNA adducts associated with the accumulation of ethanol-derived aldehydes can adversely affect critical biological functions and thereby promote cellular and tissue pathology. Animal models have proven to be valuable tools for investigating mechanisms underlying pathogenesis caused by alcohol. In this review, we provide a brief discussion on several animal models with genetic defects in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and GSH-synthesizing enzymes and their relevance to alcohol research.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2015; 815:375-87. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-09614-8_22 · 2.01 Impact Factor