Differentiation Potential of Histocompatible Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells
ABSTRACT Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold unique promise for the development of cell replacement therapies, but derivation of therapeutic products from ESCs is hampered by immunological barriers. Creation of HLA-typed ESC banks, or derivation of customized ESC lines by somatic cell nuclear transfer, have been envisioned for engineering histocompatible ESC-derived products. Proof of principle experiments in the mouse have demonstrated that autologous ESCs can be obtained via nuclear transfer and differentiated into transplantable tissues, yet nuclear transfer remains a technology with low efficiency. Parthenogenesis provides an additional means for deriving ESC lines. In parthenogenesis, artificial oocyte activation initiates development without sperm contribution and no viable offspring are produced in the absence of paternal gene expression. Development proceeds readily to the blastocyst stage, from which parthenogenetic ESC (pESC) lines can be derived with high efficiency. We have recently shown that when pESC lines are derived from hybrid mice, early recombination events produce heterozygosity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci in some of these lines, enabling the generation of histocompatible differentiated cells that can engraft immunocompetent MHC-matched mouse recipients. Here, we explore the differentiation potential of murine pESCs derived in our laboratory.
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ABSTRACT: Oocytes can reprogram genomes to form embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although ES cells largely escape senescence, oocytes themselves do senesce in the ovaries of most mammals. It remains to be determined whether ES cells can be established using eggs from old females, which exhibit reproductive senescence. We attempted to produce pluripotent stem cell lines from artificial activation of eggs (also called pES) from reproductive aged mice, to determine whether maternal aging affects pES cell production and pluripotency. We show that pES cell lines were generated with high efficiency from reproductive aged (old) mice, although parthenogenetic embryos from these mice produced fewer ES clones by initial two passages. Further, pES cell lines generated from old mice showed telomere length, expression of pluripotency molecular markers (Oct4, Nanog, SSEA1), alkaline phosphatase activity, teratoma formation and chimera production similar to young mice. Notably, DNA damage was reduced in pES cells from old mice compared to their progenitor parthenogenetic blastocysts, and did not differ from that of pES cells from young mice. Also, global gene expression differed only minimally between pES cells from young and old mice, in contrast to marked differences in gene expression in eggs from young and old mice. These data demonstrate that eggs from old mice can generate pluripotent stem cells, and suggest that the isolation and in vitro culture of ES cells must select cells with high levels of DNA and telomere integrity, and/or with capacity to repair DNA and telomeres.Aging cell 12/2009; 9(2):113-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00539.x · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have been generated in several mammalian species from parthenogenetic embryos that would otherwise die around mid-gestation. However, previous reports suggest that pESCs derived from in vivo ovulated (IVO) mature oocytes show limited pluripotency, as evidenced by low chimera production, high tissue preference and especially deficiency in germline competence, a critical test for genetic integrity and pluripotency of ESCs. Here, we report efficient generation of germline-competent pESC lines (named as IVM pESCs) from parthenogenetic embryos developed from immature oocytes of adult mouse ovaries following in vitro maturation (IVM) and artificial activation. In contrast, pESCs derived from IVO oocytes show defective germline competence, consistent with previous reports. Further, IVM pESCs resemble more ESCs from fertilized embryos (fESCs) than do IVO pESCs on genome-wide DNA methylation and global protein profiles. In addition, IVM pESCs express higher levels of Blimp1, Lin28 and Stella, relative to fESCs, and in their embryoid bodies following differentiation. This may indicate differences in differentiation potentially to the germline. The mechanisms for acquisition of pluripotency and germline competency of IVM pESCs from immature oocytes remain to be determined.Human Molecular Genetics 03/2011; 20(7):1339-52. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddr016 · 6.68 Impact Factor