Article

Apoptotic surge of potassium currents is mediated by p38 phosphorylation of Kv2.1

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2007; 104(9):3568-73. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0610159104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Kv2.1, the primary delayed rectifying potassium channel in neurons, is extensively regulated by phosphorylation. Previous reports have described Kv2.1 phosphorylation events affecting channel gating and the impact of this process on cellular excitability. Kv2.1, however, also provides the critical exit route for potassium ions during neuronal apoptosis via p38 MAPK-dependent membrane insertion, resulting in a pronounced enhancement of K(+) currents. Here, electrophysiological and viability studies using Kv2.1 channel mutants identify a p38 phosphorylation site at Ser-800 (S800) that is required for Kv2.1 membrane insertion, K(+) current surge, and cell death. In addition, a phospho-specific antibody for S800 detects a p38-dependent increase in Kv2.1 phosphorylation in apoptotic neurons and reveals phosphorylation of S800 in immunopurified channels incubated with active p38. Consequently, phosphorylation of Kv2.1 residue S800 by p38 leads to trafficking and membrane insertion during apoptosis, and remarkably, the absence of S800 phosphorylation is sufficient to prevent completion of the cell death program.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
103 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: KCNB1, a voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channel that conducts a major delayed rectifier current in the brain, pancreas and cardiovascular system is a key player in apoptotic programs associated with oxidative stress. As a result, this protein represents a bona fide drug target for limiting the toxic effects of oxygen radicals. Until recently the consensus view was that reactive oxygen species trigger a pro-apoptotic surge in KCNB1 current via phosphorylation and SNARE-dependent incorporation of KCNB1 channels into the plasma membrane. However, new evidence shows that KCNB1 can be modified by oxidants and that oxidized KCNB1 channels can directly activate pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. Hence, a more articulated picture of the pro-apoptotic role of KCNB1 is emerging in which the protein induces cell's death through distinct molecular mechanisms and activation of multiple pathways. In this review article we discuss the diverse functional, toxic and protective roles that KCNB1 channels play in the major organs where they are expressed.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated ion channels are diverse and fundamental determinants of neuronal intrinsic excitability. Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) and Na+ (Nav) channels play complex yet fundamentally important roles in determining intrinsic excitability. The Kv and Nav channels located at the axon initial segment (AIS) play a unique and especially important role in generating neuronal output in the form of anterograde axonal and backpropagating action potentials. Aberrant intrinsic excitability in individual neurons within networks contributes to synchronous neuronal activity leading to seizures. Mutations in ion channel genes give rise to a variety of seizure-related “channelopathies,” and many of the ion channel subunits associated with epilepsy mutations are localized at the AIS, making this a hotspot for epileptogenesis. Here we review the cellular mechanisms that underlie the trafficking of Kv and Nav channels found at the AIS, and how Kv and Nav channel mutations associated with epilepsy can alter these processes.
    Epilepsia 12/2012; 53(s9). DOI:10.1111/epi.12032 · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular signalling cascades triggered by oxidative injury can lead to upregulation of Kv2.1 K(+) channels at the plasma membrane of dying neurons. Membrane incorporation of new channels is necessary for enhanced K(+) efflux and a consequent reduction of intracellular K(+) that facilitates apoptosis. We showed previously that the observed increase in K(+) currents is a SNARE-mediated process, and that the SNARE protein syntaxin binds directly to Kv2.1 channels. In the present study, we tested whether disrupting the interaction of Kv2.1 and syntaxin promoted the survival of cortical neurons following injury. Syntaxin is known to bind to Kv2.1 in a domain comprised of amino acids 411-522 of the channel's cytoplasmic C-terminus (C1a). Here we show that this domain is required for the apoptotic K(+) current enhancement. Moreover, expression of an isolated, Kv2.1-derived C1a peptide is sufficient to suppress the injury-induced increase in currents by interfering with Kv2.1/syntaxin binding. By sub-dividing the C1a peptide, we were able to localize the syntaxin binding site on Kv2.1 to the most plasma membrane-distal residues of C1a. Importantly, expression of this peptide segment in neurons prevented the apoptotic K(+) current enhancement and cell death following an oxidative insult, without largely impairing baseline K(+) currents or normal electrical profiles of neurons. These results establish that binding of syntaxin to Kv2.1 is crucial for the manifestation of oxidant-induced apoptosis, and thereby reveal a potential new direction for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of Physiology 06/2014; 592(16). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.276964 · 4.38 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
29 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014