Objective assessment of proficiency with bimanual inanimate tasks in robotic laparoscopy
ABSTRACT Development of objective criteria and optimum training protocols are priorities for robotic laparoscopy. However, studies that have attempted to objectify learning have been limited due to lack of task complexity and absence of comparisons between experts and novices. Our aim was to address these limitations and assess proficiency in robotic laparoscopy using bimanual inanimate tasks.
Six experts and 18 novice users of the da Vinci surgical system (Innovative Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) performed three bimanual surgical manipulations, two of them in opposite directions, for a total of five different test tasks. During each task, elapsed time and kinematics with respect to the instrument tips were measured and a bimanual coordination analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between the simultaneous movements of both arms. Specifically, task completion time, total traveling distance of the instrument tips, and mean absolute relative phase-a variable for the assessment of bimanual coordination-were calculated for each task and compared between groups.
The experts showed significantly shorter task completion times for all tasks (P < 0.05). Significantly higher mean absolute relative phase values were observed for the experts in two tasks (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences regarding total travel distance.
Expert users of the da Vinci surgical system performed the designed surgical tasks faster and with higher bimanual dexterity than novices. Bimanual coordination analysis and the tasks used in this study show promise for becoming important components of the objective criteria needed to quantify proficiency in robotic laparoscopy.
- SourceAvailable from: Lily H P Nguyen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a technically challenging procedure, associated with a significant risk of complications. Virtual reality simulation has demonstrated benefit in many disciplines as an important educational tool for surgical training. Within the field of rhinology, there is a lack of ESS simulators with appropriate validity evidence supporting their integration into residency education. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the acceptability, perceived realism and benefit of the McGill Simulator for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (MSESS) among medical students, otolaryngology residents and faculty, and to present evidence supporting its ability to differentiate users based on their level of training through the performance metrics. 10 medical students, 10 junior residents, 10 senior residents and 3 expert sinus surgeons performed anterior ethmoidectomies, posterior ethmoidectomies and wide sphenoidotomies on the MSESS. Performance metrics related to quality (e.g. percentage of tissue removed), efficiency (e.g. time, path length, bimanual dexterity, etc.) and safety (e.g. contact with no-go zones, maximum applied force, etc.) were calculated. All users completed a post-simulation questionnaire related to realism, usefulness and perceived benefits of training on the MSESS. The MSESS was found to be realistic and useful for training surgical skills with scores of 7.97 ± 0.29 and 8.57 ± 0.69, respectively on a 10-point rating scale. Most students and residents (29/30) believed that it should be incorporated into their curriculum. There were significant differences between novice surgeons (10 medical students and 10 junior residents) and senior surgeons (10 senior residents and 3 sinus surgeons) in performance metrics related to quality (p < 0.05), efficiency (p < 0.01) and safety (p < 0.05). The MSESS demonstrated initial evidence supporting its use for residency education. This simulator may be a potential resource to help fill the void in endoscopic sinus surgery training.Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale 01/2014; 43(1):40. DOI:10.1186/s40463-014-0040-8 · 0.72 Impact Factor
- Computational Surgery and Dual Training, 01/2014: pages 365-375; Springer New York.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although the use of robotic laparoscopic surgery has increased in popularity, training protocols for gaining proficiency in robotic surgical skills are not well established. The purpose of this study was to examine a fundamental training program that provides an effective approach to evaluate and improve robotic surgical skills performance using the da Vinci(™) Surgical System. METHODS: Fifteen medical students without any robotic surgical experience were recruited. Participants went through a 4-day training program for developing fundamental robotic surgical skills and received a retention test 1 day after the completion of training. Data analysis included time to task completion, average speed, total distance traveled and movement curvature of the instrument tips, and muscle activities of the participants' forearms. Surgical performance was graded by the modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills for robotic laparoscopic surgery. Finally, participants evaluated their own performance after each session through questionnaires. RESULTS: Significant training effects were shown for the time to task completion (p < 0.001), average speed (p < 0.01), and movement curvature (p < 0.05) for the test conditions. Significant learning effects were also found for EMG activation (p < 0.05). Participants reported more mastery, familiarity, and self-confidence and less difficulty in performing fundamental tasks with the surgical robot in both post-testing and retention sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Our 4-day training program comprising of a series of training tasks from fundamental to surgical skill levels was effective in improving surgical skills. Further studies are required to verify these findings with a longer period of retention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 01/2011; 7(3). DOI:10.1002/rcs.402 · 1.53 Impact Factor