Leishmania panamensis transmission in the domestic environment: the results of a prospective epidemiological survey in Santander, Colombia.
ABSTRACT Domestic transmission now appears to be the principal route of Leishmania panamensis infection in deforested regions characterized by the replacement of primary forest by permanent plantations, i,e coffee or cacao crops. This paper presents the results of the disease patterns in a representative population of the Opón focus, in Santander, Colombia.
The principal aims were: 1) to measure the incidence rate in a representative population of the Opón focus; 2) to identify demographic risk factors for infection; 3) to estimate the proportion of infections which cause disease; 4) to estimate the protection against disease from acquired immunity; 5) to estimate the frequency of reactivations, and 6) to estimate the risk of mucosal leishmaniasis.
A 19 month prospective survey of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania panamensis was carried out amongst 1380 people in a cacao growing region of Santander Department, Colombia. The population was diagnosed clinically and by the Montenegro skin test (at two time points).
The incidence rate was 0.19 infections/person-year, with 31% of infections apparently subclinical. The risk of acquiring cutaneous leishmaniasis decreased with age even in the absence of apparent previous infections. Protective immunity followed both clinical and subclinical infections, persisting for at least 10 years after a primary lesion. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was detected in 12% of the population with cutaneous lesions, of which 77% had mild symptoms, and 23% perforated nasal septa. The risk of mucosal leishmaniasis was greatest for males, and for people whose primary cutaneous lesion was on the head.
The average age of infection in Opón, 7.7 years (1/lambda), and the absence of gender as a risk factor is highly indicative of intradomiciliary or peridomiciliary transmission.
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ABSTRACT: Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006-2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male-female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk between sex hormones and immune effectors, thus emerge as the main candidate drivers of gender differences in infectious disease susceptibility.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62390. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. Methods First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. Results The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23%vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7%vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8%vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3%vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = -0.30, P = 0.05). Conclusion The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house.Tropical Medicine & International Health 08/2012; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:805108.