Effect of preservation solution on graft viability in single-lung transplantation from heart-beating donors in pigs.
ABSTRACT Low-potassium-dextran preservation solution Perfadex (PER) may provide better outcome of transplanted lungs than high-potassium Euro-Collins (EC) solution. However, there are no comparative studies of the recipient inflammatory response to the graft.
The purpose of this study was to compare EC versus PER as preservation solutions with respect to the functional performance and inflammatory response in single-lung transplantation from heart-beating donors in pigs.
The donor left lung flushed with the corresponding cold preservation solution was stored at 3 degrees C for 3 hours. We assessed hemodynamic values and pulmonary function in the recipient over a 2-hour reperfusion period calculated as percent of basal values, and expressed as mean of the reperfusion period. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration in the donor was estimated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 2 hours after recipient reperfusion. Biopsies of the donor right lung and the transplanted lung were obtained to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. IL-8 and MPO values were expressed as percent of the donor value. We evaluated the wet/dry pulmonary weight ratio (W/D), polymorphonuclear neutrophil count (PMN), and a score of histological damage in the transplanted graft.
Pulmonary function evaluated by % static: 66.6 +/- 6.8 (EC), 82.3 +/- 10.2 (PER), and dynamic: 74.0 +/- 7.3 (EC), 89.3 +/- 7.7 (PER) compliances, as well as % IL-8: 562.5 +/- 168.6 (EC), 232.3 +/- 148.7 (PER), % MPO: 485.9 +/- 194.9 (EC), 140.8 +/- 21.1 (PER), W/D: 9.9 +/- 3.1 (EC), 6.8 +/- 1.4 (PER), PMN 13.5 +/- 6.8 (EC), 5.5 +/- 3.3 (PER) and the histological damage score: 3.0 +/- 1.5 (EC), 0.7 +/- 0.4 (PER) showed significant differences between the EC and the PER (P < .01).
PER affords good lung preservation with early graft function and modest evidences of inflammation, lung injury, and edema compared with the EC perfused lung.
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ABSTRACT: Increased levels of the neutrophil chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 in the lungs of severe trauma patients can predict subsequent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because the lungs of brain-dead organ donors can contain high levels of IL-8, we hypothesized that this may predispose to early graft failure in the recipient after lung transplantation. Twenty-six organ donors prospectively satisfying clinical criteria for lung donation underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy to determine the effect of neutrophil infiltration and IL-8 expression in the donor lung on graft function and survival in 26 respective recipients after lung transplantation. Nine recipients developed severe graft dysfunction, of whom six subsequently died (median survival: 24 d [range: 5 to 39 d]); all others survived beyond 6 mo. The IL-8 signal in the donor lung correlated with the percent neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) before implantation (42.4 +/- 7.24 [mean +/- SE]%, p = 0.03) and with the degree of impairment in graft oxygenation after implantation (p = 0.01). An increased level of IL-8 in the donor BALF was associated with the development of severe early graft dysfunction (p = 0.027) and with early recipient mortality (p = 0.0034). Use of donor lungs with high IL-8 levels is associated with a poor prognosis after lung transplantation. Attenuating the donor's inflammatory response before organ retrieval may improve early outcome after lung transplantation, and help maximize lung use from the existing donor pool.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2001; 163(1):259-65. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation has evolved to become an effective treatment for a variety of end-stage lung diseases. However, severe reperfusion injury is still a major cause for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although lung reperfusion injury is complex and has not been fully comprehended yet, neutrophil infiltration and cytokine activation have been postulated to play a main role. Recent studies showed that nitric oxide (NO) therapy has salutary effects on lung chronic and acute pathologies because it inhibits interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, but no data have been found on its effects during organ harvest. The aim of this study was to assess whether low doses of inhaled NO pre-treatment at the time of harvesting improves allograft function during early reperfusion in a porcine model. Twenty-two Landrace pigs were randomly assigned to NO-treated and control groups. In NO-treated pigs, NO at 20 ppm was administered 30 min before harvest. During the early allograft reperfusion period IL-8 content, dynamic and static compliance and gas exchange (Pa/FiO2 and PaO2) were measured in both control and NO-treated lungs. Pre-treatment with NO at the time of harvesting showed improvement of allograft function in terms of dynamic (92 +/- 8% in NO vs 72 +/- 7% in the control group, p < .05) and static (83 +/- 8% in NO vs 63 +/- 7% in the control group, p < 0.05) compliance and gas exchange (PaO2: 96 +/- 4% in NO vs 74 +/- 4.5% in the control group, p < 0.01; Pa/FiO2: 97 +/- 5% in NO vs 74 +/- 5% in the control group, p < 0.01) by diminishing IL-8 (66.5 +/- 4.7 pg/ml in NO versus 208 +/- 43 pg/ml in the control group, p < 0.05) release in pigs. These results show for the first time that NO pre-treatment at the time of harvesting reduces allograft reperfusion injury in part due to its effects on IL-8 release.The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 06/2005; 24(6):714-22. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reperfusion injury represents a severe early complication following lung transplantation. Among the pathogenetic factors, the high potassium content of Euro-Collins(reg) solution is discussed. In a pig model of orthotopic left-sided lung transplantation we investigated the effect of Euro-Collins solution (EC: n = 6) versus low potassium dextran (LPD: Perfadex: n = 6). Sham-operated (n = 6) animals served as control. Transplant function, cellular energy metabolism and endothelial morphology served as parameters. In a clinical investigation, 124 patients were evaluated following single (EC: n = 31; LPD n = 37) or double (EC: n = 17; LPD n = 39) lung transplantation, whose organs where preserved with EC (n = 48) or LPD (n = 76). Duration of ischemia, duration of ventilation and stay on ICU were registered. Primary transplant function was evaluated according to AaDO(2) values. Cause of early death (30 days) was declared. Experimental results: After flush with EC and 18 h ischemia, a reduction of tissue ATP content (p < 0.01 vs inital value and LPD) was noted. Endothelial damage after ischemia was severe (p < 0.05 vs control), paO(2) was significantly decreased. Clinical results: In the LPD group, duration of ischemia was longer for the grafts transplanted first (SLTx and DLTx: p = 0.0009) as well as second (2. organ DLTx: p = 0.045). Primary transplant function was improved (day 0: SLTx: p = 0.0015; DLTx: p = 0.0095, both vs EC). Duration of ventilation and stay on ICU were shorter (n.s.). Reperfusion injury-associated death was reduced from 8% (EC) to 0 (LPD). In experimental lung preservation, LPD lead to an improved graft function. These results were confirmed in clinical lung transplantation. Clinical lung preservation, therefore, should be carried out by use of LPD.European Surgical Research 01/2002; 34(1-2):77-82. · 0.75 Impact Factor