Effect of preservation solution on graft viability in single-lung transplantation from heart-beating donors in pigs
ABSTRACT Low-potassium-dextran preservation solution Perfadex (PER) may provide better outcome of transplanted lungs than high-potassium Euro-Collins (EC) solution. However, there are no comparative studies of the recipient inflammatory response to the graft.
The purpose of this study was to compare EC versus PER as preservation solutions with respect to the functional performance and inflammatory response in single-lung transplantation from heart-beating donors in pigs.
The donor left lung flushed with the corresponding cold preservation solution was stored at 3 degrees C for 3 hours. We assessed hemodynamic values and pulmonary function in the recipient over a 2-hour reperfusion period calculated as percent of basal values, and expressed as mean of the reperfusion period. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration in the donor was estimated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 2 hours after recipient reperfusion. Biopsies of the donor right lung and the transplanted lung were obtained to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. IL-8 and MPO values were expressed as percent of the donor value. We evaluated the wet/dry pulmonary weight ratio (W/D), polymorphonuclear neutrophil count (PMN), and a score of histological damage in the transplanted graft.
Pulmonary function evaluated by % static: 66.6 +/- 6.8 (EC), 82.3 +/- 10.2 (PER), and dynamic: 74.0 +/- 7.3 (EC), 89.3 +/- 7.7 (PER) compliances, as well as % IL-8: 562.5 +/- 168.6 (EC), 232.3 +/- 148.7 (PER), % MPO: 485.9 +/- 194.9 (EC), 140.8 +/- 21.1 (PER), W/D: 9.9 +/- 3.1 (EC), 6.8 +/- 1.4 (PER), PMN 13.5 +/- 6.8 (EC), 5.5 +/- 3.3 (PER) and the histological damage score: 3.0 +/- 1.5 (EC), 0.7 +/- 0.4 (PER) showed significant differences between the EC and the PER (P < .01).
PER affords good lung preservation with early graft function and modest evidences of inflammation, lung injury, and edema compared with the EC perfused lung.
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ABSTRACT: Low potassium dextran (LPD) solution can attenuate acute lung injury (ALI). However, LPD solution for treating acute kidney injury secondary to ALI has not been reported. The present study was performed to examine the renoprotective effect of LPD solution in ALI induced by oleic acid (OA) in piglets. Twelve animals that suffered an ALI induced by administration of OA into the right atrium were divided into two groups: the placebo group (n = 6) pretreated with normal saline and the LPD group (n = 6), pretreated with LPD solution. LPD solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 12.5 ml/kg via the auricular vein 1 hour before OA injection. All animals survived the experiments with mild histopathological injury to the kidney. There were no significant differences in mean arterial pressure (MAP), creatinin and renal damage scores between the two groups. Compared with the placebo group, the LPD group had better gas exchange parameters at most of the observation points ((347.0 ± 12.6) mmHg vs. (284.3 ± 11.3) mmHg at 6 hours after ALI, P < 0.01). After 6 hours of treatment with OA, the plasma concentrations of NGAL and interleukin (IL)-6 in both groups increased dramatically compared to baseline ((6.0 ± 0.6) and (2.50 ± 0.08) folds in placebo group; and (2.5 ± 0.5) and (1.40 ± 0.05) folds in LPD group), but the change of both parameters in the LPD group was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than in the placebo group. And 6 hours after ALI the kidney tissue concentration of IL-6 in the LPD group ((165.7 ± 22.5) pg×ml(-1)×g(-1) protein) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that in placebo group ((67.2 ± 25.3) pg×ml(-1)×g(-1) protein). These findings suggest that pretreatment with LPD solution via systemic administration might attenuate acute kidney injury and the cytokine response of IL-6 in the ALI piglet model induced by OA injection.Chinese medical journal 09/2012; 125(17):3093-7. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the scarcity of donors. Brain death (BD) donors are major source of lung transplantation. Whereas BD process induces acute lung injury and aggravates lung ischemia reperfusion injury. Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation at 50-500 parts per million (ppm) can ameliorate lung injury in several models. We examined in rats whether CO inhalation in BD donor would show favorable effects on lung grafts. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. In sham group, donor rats received insertion of a balloon catheter into the cranial cavity, but the balloon was not inflated. In BD-only group, donor rats were ventilated with 40% oxygen after BD confirmation. In BD+CO250 and BD+CO500 groups, donor rats inhaled, after BD confirmation, 250 ppm or 500 ppm CO for 120 minutes prior to lung procurement, and orthotopic lung transplantation was performed. The rats were sacrificed 120 minutes after the lung transplantation by exsanguination, and their blood and lung graft samples were obtained. A total of 8 rats fulfilling the criteria were included in each group. The inhalation decreased the severity of lung injury in grafts from BD donors checked by histological examination. CO pretreatment reversed the aggravation of PaO2/FiO2 in recipients from BD donors. The CO inhalation down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6) along with the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in recipient serum, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase in grafts tissue. The inhalation significantly decreased cell apoptosis in lung grafts, inhibiting mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 in lung grafts. Further, the inhalation activated phosphorylation of p38 expression and inhibited phosphorylation of anti-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression in lung grafts. The effects of CO at 500 ppm were greater than those at 250 ppm. CO exerts potent protective effects on lung grafts from BD donor, exhibiting anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis functions by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction.Chinese medical journal 09/2008; 121(15):1411-9. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To verify the impact of ischemic time on lung cell viability in an experimental model of lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and its repercussion on lung performance after reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty-four animals were subjected to selective clamping of the left pulmonary artery and divided into four groups (n = 6) according to ischemic time: 15 (IR15), 30 (IR30), 45 (IR45), and 60 min (IR60). All animals were observed for 120 min after reperfusion. The hemodynamics, arterial blood gases measurements, and histologic changes were analyzed. Immunofluorescence assays for caspase 3 and annexin V were performed. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and caspase 3 activity was assessed by colorimetric extract. RESULTS: The partial pressure of arterial oxygen significantly decreased at the end of the observation period in the IR30, IR45, and IR60 groups (P < 0.05). The final mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in the IR60 group (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in caspase 3 activity and caspase 3-positive cells by immunofluorescence in the IR45 group compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was an increase in necrotic cells assessed by annexin V in the IR60 group. The histologic score did not show differences among the different groups. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of cell damage had a negative impact on lung performance. Sixty minutes of lung ischemia and posterior reperfusion resulted in an increased number of necrotic cells, suggesting that these cells may not be able to reverse the effects of the IR injury because of the lack of viable cells.Journal of Surgical Research 09/2012; 179(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2012.08.026 · 2.12 Impact Factor