Construct synthetic gene encoding artificial spider dragline silk protein and its expression in milk of transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT Based on the known partial cDNA sequence of dragline silk protein an artificial gene monomer, a 360 bp sequence, was designed and polymerized to encode an analog of dragline silk protein. Six tandem copies of monomer were cloned into pBC1 vector and microinjected into the pronuclei of fertilized Kunming White eggs. Transgenic mice were screened by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Southern blot which revealed that 10 mice (5 male, 5 female) among 58 mice were transgenic positive. Milk of five F0 mice and eight F1 mice was analyzed by Western blot, and two F0 mice and seven F1 mice expressed recombinant dragline silk protein. In transgenic mice milk a maximum of concentration of recombinant dragline silk protein was 11.7 mg/L by radioimmunoassay.
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ABSTRACT: Spider silks are desirable biomaterials characterized by high tensile strength, elasticity, and biocompatibility. Spiders produce different types of silks for different uses, although dragline silks have been the predominant focus of previous studies. Spider wrapping silk, made of the aciniform protein (AcSp1), has high toughness because of its combination of high elasticity and tensile strength. AcSp1 in Argiope trifasciata contains a 200-aa sequence motif that is repeated at least 14 times. Here, we produced in E. coli recombinant proteins consisting of only one to four of the 200-aa AcSp1 repeats, designated W(1) to W(4). We observed that purified W(2), W(3) and W(4) proteins could be induced to form silk-like fibers by shear forces in a physiological buffer. The fibers formed by W(4) were ∼3.4 µm in diameter and up to 10 cm long. They showed an average tensile strength of 115 MPa, elasticity of 37%, and toughness of 34 J cm(-3). The smaller W(2) protein formed fewer fibers and required a higher protein concentration to form fibers, whereas the smallest W(1) protein did not form silk-like fibers, indicating that a minimum of two of the 200-aa repeats was required for fiber formation. Microscopic examinations revealed structural features indicating an assembly of the proteins into spherical structures, fibrils, and silk-like fibers. CD and Raman spectral analysis of protein secondary structures suggested a transition from predominantly α-helical in solution to increasingly β-sheet in fibers.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50227. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spider silk is a fascinating material combining remarkable mechanical properties with low density and biodegradability. Because of these properties and historical descriptions of medical applications, spider silk has been proposed to be the ideal biomaterial. However, overcoming the obstacles to produce spider silk in sufficient quantities and in a manner that meets regulatory demands has proven to be a difficult task. Also, there are relatively few studies of spider silk in biomedical applications available, and the methods and materials used vary a lot. Herein we summarize cell culture- and in vivo implantation studies of natural and synthetic spider silk, and also review the current status and future challenges in the quest for a large scale production of spider silk for medical applications.Biopolymers 09/2011; 97(6):468-78. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks.Microbial Biotechnology 11/2013; 6(6):651-663. · 3.21 Impact Factor