The influence of diabetes on cardiac beta-adrenoceptor subtypes.
ABSTRACT Despite the significant developments in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients still continue to suffer from cardiac complications. The increase of cardiac adrenergic drive may ultimately contribute to the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. beta-Adrenoceptors play an important role in the regulation of heart function. However, responsiveness of diabetic heart to beta-adrenoceptor agonist stimulation is diminished. The chronotropic responses mediated by beta(1)-subtype, which is mainly responsible for cardiac effects of catecholamines are decreased in the atria of diabetic rats. The expression of cardiac beta(1)-subtype is significantly decreased in diabetic rats as well. beta(2)-Adrenoceptors also increase cardiac function. Although the expression of this subtype is slightly decreased in diabetic rat hearts, beta(2)-mediated chronotropic responses are preserved. On the other hand, functional beta(3)-adrenoceptor subtype was characterized in human heart. Interestingly, stimulation of cardiac beta(3)-adrenoceptors, on the contrary of beta(1)- and beta(2)-subtypes, mediates negative inotropic effect in human ventricular muscle. Cardiac beta(3)-adrenoceptors are upregulated in experimental diabetes as well as in human heart failure. These findings suggest that each beta-adrenoceptor subtype may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes-induced heart disease. However, it is still not known whether the changes in the expression and/or responsiveness of beta-adrenoceptors are adaptive or maladaptive. Therefore, this review outlines the potential roles of these receptor subtypes in cardiac pathologies of diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation was investigated in [32P]-labeled cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat heart ventricles. The beta-adrenergic stimulation (by isoproterenol, ISO) increased the phosphorylation of inhibitory subunit of troponin (TN-I), C-protein and phospholamban (PLN). Such stimulation was largely mediated by increased adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, increased myoplasmic cyclic AMP and increased cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (A-kinase)-catalyzed phosphorylation of these proteins in view of the following observations: (a) dibutyryl-and bromo-derivatives of cyclic AMP mimicked the stimulatory effect of ISO on protein phosphorylation while (b) Rp-cyclic AMP was found to attenuate ISO-dependent stimulation. Unexpectedly, 8-bromo cyclic GMP was found to markedly increase TN-I and PLN phosphorylation. Both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors were present and ISO binding to either receptor was found to stimulate myocyte AC. However, the stimulation of the beta 2-AR only marginally increased while the stimulation of beta 1-AR markedly increased PLN phosphorylation. Other stimuli that increase tissue cyclic AMP levels also increased PLN and TN-I phosphorylation and these included isobutylmethylxanthine (non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor), milrinone (inhibits cardiotonic inhibitable phosphodiesterase, sometimes called type III or IV) and forskolin (which directly stimulates adenylyl cyclase). Cholinergic agonists acting on cardiomyocyte M2-muscarinic receptors that are coupled to AC via pertussis toxin(PT)-sensitive G proteins inhibited AC and attenuated ISO-dependent increases in PLN and TN-I phosphorylation. The in vivo PT treatment, which ADP-ribosylated Gi-like protein(s) in the myocytes, markedly attenuated muscarinic inhibitory effect on PLN and TN-I phosphorylation on one hand and, increased the beta-adrenergic stimulation, on the other. Controlled exposure of isolated myocytes to N-ethyl maleimide, also led to the findings similar to those seen following the PT treatment. Exposure of myocytes to phorbol, 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) increased the protein phosphorylation, augmenting the stimulation by ISO, and such augmentation was antagonized by propranolol suggesting modulation of the beta-adrenoceptor coupled AC pathway by PMA. Okadaic acid (OA) exposure of myocytes also increased protein phosphorylation with the results supporting the roles for type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases in the dephosphorylation of PLN and TN-I. Interestingly OA treatment attenuated the muscarinic inhibitory effect which was restored by subsequent brief exposure of myocytes to PMA. While the stimulation of alpha adrenoceptors exerted little effect on the phosphorylation of PLN and TN-I, inactivation of alpha adrenoceptors by chloroethylclonidine (CEC), augmented beta-adrenergically stimulated phosphorylation. KCl-dependent depolarization of myocytes was observed to potentiate ISO-dependent increase in phosphorylation (incubation period 15 sec to 1 min) as well as to accelerate the time-dependent decline in this phosphorylation seen upon longer incubation. Verapamil decreased ISO-stimulated protein phosphorylation in the depolarized myocytes. Depolarization was found to have little effect on the muscarinic inhibitory action on phosphorylation. Prior treatment of myocytes with PMA, was found to augment ISO-stimulated protein phosphorylation in the depolarized myocytes. Such augmented increases were completely blocked by propranolol. Forskolin also stimulated PLN and TN-I phosphorylation. Prior exposure of myocytes to forskolin followed by incubation in the depolarized and polarized media showed that PLN was dephosphorylated more rapidly in the depolarized myocytes. The results support the view that both cyclic AMP and calcium signals cooperatively increase the rates of phosphorylation of TN-I and PLN in the depolarized cardiomyocytes during beta-adrenergic stimulation. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/1995; 149-150:103-26. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Murine left atrium lacks inotropic beta(2)-adrenoceptor function. We investigated whether beta(2)-adrenoceptors are involved in the cardiostimulant effects of (-)-adrenaline on spontaneously beating right atria and paced right ventricular myocardium of C57BL6 mice. We also studied a negative inotropic effect of (-)-adrenaline. 2. Sinoatrial tachycardia, evoked by (-)-adrenaline was resistant to blockade by beta(2)-selective ICI 118,551 (50 nM) but antagonized by beta(1)-selective CGP 20712A (300 nM). This pattern was unaffected by pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX, 600 microg kg(-1) i.p. 24 h) which reversed carbachol-evoked bradycardia to tachycardia. 3. Increases of ventricular force by (-)-adrenaline and (-)-noradrenaline were not blocked by ICI 118,551 but antagonized by CGP 20712A. 4. Under blockade of beta-adrenoceptors, (-)-adrenaline and (-)-noradrenaline depressed ventricular force (-logIC(50)M=7.7 and 6.9). The cardiodepressant effects of (-)-adrenaline were antagonized by phentolamine (1 microM) and prazosin (1 microM) but not by (-)-bupranolol (1 microM). Prazosin potentiated the positive inotropic effects of (-)-adrenaline (in the absence of beta-blockers) from -logEC(50)M=6.2 - 6.8. 5. PTX-treatment reduced carbachol-evoked depression of ventricular force in the presence of high catecholamine concentrations. Inhibition of ventricular function of G(i) protein was verified by 82% reduction of in vitro ADP-ribosylation. PTX-treatment tended to increase the positive inotropic potency of (-)-adrenaline under all conditions investigated, including the presence of ICI 118,551. 6. (-)-Adrenaline causes murine cardiostimulation through beta(1)-adrenoceptors but not through beta(2)-adrenoceptors. The negative inotropic effects of (-)-adrenaline are mediated through ventricular alpha(1)-adrenoceptors but not through beta(3)-adrenoceptors. Both G(i) protein and alpha(1)-adrenoceptors restrain (-)-adrenaline-evoked increases in right ventricular force mediated through beta(1)-adrenoceptors.British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2002; 136(2):217-29. · 5.07 Impact Factor
- Pharmacological Reviews 01/2000; 51(4):651-90. · 22.35 Impact Factor