Dikkopf-1 as a novel serologic and prognostic biomarker for lung and esophageal carcinomas

Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 04/2007; 67(6):2517-25. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3369
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gene expression profile analysis of lung and esophageal carcinomas revealed that Dikkopf-1 (DKK1) was highly transactivated in the great majority of lung cancers and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Immunohistochemical staining using tumor tissue microarrays consisting of 279 archived non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and 280 ESCC specimens showed that a high level of DKK1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of patients with NSCLC as well as ESCC, and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic value for NSCLC. In addition, we identified that exogenous expression of DKK1 increased the migratory activity of mammalian cells, suggesting that DKK1 may play a significant role in progression of human cancer. We established an ELISA system to measure serum levels of DKK1 and found that serum DKK1 levels were significantly higher in lung and esophageal cancer patients than in healthy controls. The proportion of the DKK1-positive cases was 126 of 180 (70.0%) NSCLC, 59 of 85 (69.4%) SCLC, and 51 of 81 (63.0%) ESCC patients, whereas only 10 of 207 (4.8%) healthy volunteers were falsely diagnosed as positive. A combined ELISA assays for both DKK1 and carcinoembryonic antigen increased sensitivity and classified 82.2% of the NSCLC patients as positive whereas only 7.7% of healthy volunteers were falsely diagnosed to be positive. The use of both DKK1 and ProGRP increased sensitivity to detect SCLCs up to 89.4%, whereas false-positive rate in healthy donors was only 6.3%. Our data imply that DKK1 should be useful as a novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarker in clinic and probably as a therapeutic target for lung and esophageal cancer.

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