Coffee and cardiovascular disease: in vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies.
ABSTRACT Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies, cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most definitive evidence, human trials.
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ABSTRACT: The chemistry of the Folin-Ciocalteu is described and two Folin assays (single and dual reagent) are described for the assay of phenols and polyphenols with respect to experimental detail and critically evaluated for pure compounds and for mixtures (plant extracts). The single reagent method was found to be more precise and sensitive. The problem of interferences in the Folin assay was evaluated for both methods. Interferences for the dual reagent methodology can be eliminated by a solid phase removal of phenols using a commercial resin (Oasys HLB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone resin (Polyclar AT). A new basic/acid hydrolysis combed with the Polyclar AT was used to measure the total phenols in a sample as previous methods measured only the phenolic groups not bound as ether or ester groups. A semi-automated method, microplate reader, is described as to the experimental procedure and applicability. Miscellaneous uses of the Folin assay including flow injection, urine analysis and a mixed standard are briefly described.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Yintian Granule (YTG), as a type of local preparation and applied for Chinese patent, is mainly composed of several traditional Chinese herbs used as both drug and food such as Lonicera macranthoides, Gardenia jasminoides, and Asparagus cochinchinenis, and has been reported to demonstrate the beneficial effects on human health in other researches. In this paper, the protective effects of YTG against experimental acute liver injury of mice were investigated to assess the value of this innovative Chinese herbal compound. Methods Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and 50% ethanol were used respectively to induce the acute liver injury model in mice pre-administered with YTG. Lai's method was used to detect the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, Coomassie brilliant blue method was used for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used for the observation of liver histomorphometry. Results YTG significantly lowered the elevated ALT and AST levels, increased the SOD activity, decreased the MDA content, and inhibited the deterioration of liver. Conclusion YTG exerts protective effected against hepatocyte damage in mice induced by CCl4 and 50% ethanol, respectively.08/2014; 6(3):247–252. DOI:10.1016/S1674-6384(14)60036-8
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ABSTRACT: This review evaluates coffee constituents in order to determine their influence on the inflammation process. Coffee is a common beverage that contains multiple substances that impact inflammatory markers. The caffeine, chlorogenic acid (CGA), cafestol, trigonelline, and kahweol found in coffee are thought to have significant potential as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Experimental animal studies indicated reduction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1B (IL-1B), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with coffee consumption. Human studies presented mixed results. At this point, coffee shows some promise against the inflammatory response. More research with controlled, double-blinded studies in humans must be conducted before practitioners advise patients to utilize the beverage as a prophylaxis against inflammation.Journal of Functional Foods 10/2012; 4(4):819-830. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2012.05.010 · 4.48 Impact Factor