Coffee and cardiovascular disease: In vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies

Department of Chemistry, Loyola Hall, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, USA.
Pharmacological Research (Impact Factor: 3.98). 04/2007; 55(3):187-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies, cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most definitive evidence, human trials.

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    • "Caffeine and chlorogenic acids have been extensively studied because they may reduce the risk of insulin resistance (Ranheim and Halvorsen 2005; and Van Dieren et al., 2009), and development and progression of atherosclerosis (Butt and Sultan, 2011) and they might decrease blood pressure (BP) (Yamaguchi et al., 2008; and Medina-Rem et al., 2010). We concluded from several studies that the diterpenoid alcohols cafestol and kahweol might cause deleterious effects of coffee (de Rooset al., 2001; Tofovic et al., 2002; Ranheim and Halvorsen, 2005; and Bonita et al., 2007), with the coffee polyphenols producing benefits (Bonita et al., 2007) and caffeine showing contrasting results, including increases in cholesterol (Tofovic et al., 2002). Finally, the results obtained by Sunil et al. (2012) suggest that all these components were active and the effects observed were cumulative. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee beverage is a globally consumed and is prepared in a wide variety of formats. This study aimed at clarifies the effect of different preparations of coffee on body weight, serum uric acid and liver enzymes in experimental rats. Forty male albino rats (130±2.3 g) were divided into five equal groups (n=8), control, Turkish coffee medium roasting (TMC), Turkish coffee dark roasting (TDC), Nescafe (NesC), and Arabic coffee. Each group received 2 ml oral solution containing the dose of coffee (0, 4.3, 4.3, 14.3, 8.6 mg/100 g BW respectively). The experiment continued for thirty days, and at the end rats were anesthetized and killed for collection of blood samples that used for determination of uric acid, urea, ALT, and AST. Samples of liver were collected for histopathology. Results showed that rats fed different preparations of coffee had significantly smaller weight gain. Meanwhile, group fed Nescafe lost considerable amount of body weight. Different preparations of coffee especially Turkish coffee dark roasting, Nescafe and Arabic coffee reduced serum uric acid. TMC group had significantly (P<0.05) the lowest values of AST and ALT, then NesC group. In conclusion, moderate amounts of Nescafe have the most favorable effects on body weight, serum uric acid, and liver enzymes.
    Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 07/2015; 3(7):292-300. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Both the dual and the single Folin methods are good for the detection of a wide range of antioxidant compounds in a large variety of plants and plant-derived foods and beverages. The single reagent has been used for phenolic antioxidants from fruits [4] [6] [7], vegetables[8] [9], cereals [7], fruit juices [10] [11] [12], caffeinated beverages [13] [14], alcoholic beverages [15] [16] chocolate [17], herbs and spices [18] [19] and plant extracts [20] by our group and other investigators. The major classification of antioxidant compounds: flavonols, flavones , flavanones, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, anthocyanins , phenolic acids are detected by the Folin methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chemistry of the Folin-Ciocalteu is described and two Folin assays (single and dual reagent) are described for the assay of phenols and polyphenols with respect to experimental detail and critically evaluated for pure compounds and for mixtures (plant extracts). The single reagent method was found to be more precise and sensitive. The problem of interferences in the Folin assay was evaluated for both methods. Interferences for the dual reagent methodology can be eliminated by a solid phase removal of phenols using a commercial resin (Oasys HLB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone resin (Polyclar AT). A new basic/acid hydrolysis combed with the Polyclar AT was used to measure the total phenols in a sample as previous methods measured only the phenolic groups not bound as ether or ester groups. A semi-automated method, microplate reader, is described as to the experimental procedure and applicability. Miscellaneous uses of the Folin assay including flow injection, urine analysis and a mixed standard are briefly described.
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    • "Therefore, the operational definition of long-term that underpins the design summarised in Table 1, while useful for particular research aims should not be considered immutable for all research purposes. Because most pregnant women consume caffeine and caffeine crosses the placenta (Bonita et al., 2007; Brazier and Salle, 1981; Van&apos;t Hoff, 1982), initial exposure for most people precedes birth (James, 1997). Exposure in the form of soft drinks typically continues throughout childhood, and although patterns of consumption may change (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 05/2014; 124. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.05.019 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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