High prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs

Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 07/2007; 122(3-4):366-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.027
Source: PubMed


Recently methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from pigs and pig farmers in The Netherlands. In order to assess the dissemination of MRSA in the Dutch pig population, we screened 540 pigs in 9 slaughterhouses, where a representative portion of Dutch pigs (63%) was slaughtered in 2005. We found 209 (39%) of the pigs to carry MRSA in their nares. Forty-four of 54 groups of 10 consecutive pigs (81%), each group from a different farm, and all slaughterhouses were affected. All MRSA isolates belonged to 1 clonal group, showing Multi-Locus Sequence Type 398 and closely related spa types (mainly t011, t108 and t1254). Three types of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette (SCCmec) were found: III (3%), IVa (39%) and V (57%). All 44 tested isolates (1 isolate per group) were resistant to tetracycline, reflecting the high and predominant use of tetracyclines in pig husbandry. Twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin and 36% to kanamycin, gentamicin and tobramycin but only a single isolate was resistant to co-trimoxazole and none to ciprofloxacin and several other antibiotics. The percentage of MRSA positive pigs was significantly different among slaughterhouses and among groups within slaughterhouses, indicating a high prevalence of MRSA in pigs delivered from the farms as well as cross contamination in the slaughterhouses.

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Available from: Marga G. van Santen-Verheuvel, Oct 13, 2014
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    • "The frequent detection of specific clonal MRSA lineages (CC398 MRSA) among livestock, i.e. pigs, cattle, poultry, in recent years in several (European) countries is a matter of concern (de Neeling et al., 2007; Spohr et al., 2010; Richter et al., 2012). These so-called livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA are considered to be zoonotic (van Loo et al., 2007; Witte et al., 2007b; Cuny et al., 2013) and people with occupational contact to livestock, e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 06/2014; 186C:68-73. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.06.018 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    • "In several studies, MRSA has been found at high levels on US and European farms and in commercially-distributed meats, emerging as a potential concern for meat handlers and consumers [28, 64, 68, 75–77, 83–88]. Several species of meat-producing animals are frequently implicated including pigs [68, 75, 76], poultry [89–91], and cattle [73, 92]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.
    04/2014; 2014(1):827965. DOI:10.1155/2014/827965
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    • "The higher prevalence of MRSA in pigs in abattoirs compared to the prevalence on farms might be due to MRSA transmission at abattoirs (De Neeling et al., 2007) or during transportation to the abattoir. For Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a short exposure to contaminated environments (such as lorries and lairages in abattoirs) is sufficient to result in positive pigs (Hurd et al., 2001; Boughton et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the resistance pheno- and genotypes and the molecular typing characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from broiler farms in order to explore transmission between the different reservoirs. Thirty-seven MRSA CC398 isolates (11 from broilers, 15 from the broiler houses, 5 from farm residences and 6 from humans living and/or working on the farms) cultured from samples at four different farms during a previous study, were included. In addition to the previously determined spa types, the isolates were characterized by dru typing, SCCmec typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA microarray. Resistance phenotypes were determined by broth microdilution. Resistance genes were detected by DNA microarray or specific PCR assays. Selected isolates from broilers and humans (n=7) were analysed by whole genome mapping. On the same farm, isolates from chickens, broiler houses, the farm residences and humans were often closely related or indistinguishable. On three of the four farms, however, MRSA isolates with different characteristics were present. On the one hand, the apparent similarity of MRSA isolates from the same farm indicates transmission between broilers, humans and their environment. On the other hand, different MRSA isolates were present on the same farm, indicating introduction from different sources or diversification over time. This study shows that different typing methods should be used to investigate epidemiological links between isolates and that whole genome mapping can be a useful tool to establish these links.
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