Article

Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China

University of Gdansk, Danzig, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.5). 09/2007; 68(11):2085-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.02.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from tributaries of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Province, south China) and the Yangtze River (central China). Among the PFCs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the two compounds with the highest concentrations. PFOS concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 99 ng/l and <0.01-14 ng/l in samples from the Pearl River and Yangtze River, respectively; whereas those for PFOA ranged from 0.85 to 13 ng/l and 2.0-260 ng/l. Lower concentrations were measured for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfoamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Concentrations of several perfluorocarboxylic acids, including perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were lower than the limits of quantification in all the samples analyzed. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in water samples from the Yangtze River near Shanghai, the major industrial and financial centre in China. In addition, sampling locations in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River with a reduced flow rate might serve as a final sink for contaminants from the upstream river runoffs. Generally, PFOS was the dominant PFC found in samples from the Pearl River, while PFOA was the predominant PFC in water from the Yangtze River. Specifically, a considerable amount of PFBS (22.9-26.1% of total PFC analyzed) was measured in water collected near Nanjing, which indicates the presence of potential sources of PFBS in this part of China. Completely different PFC composition profiles were observed for samples from the Pearl River and the Yangtze River. This indicates the presence of dissimilar sources in these two regions.

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    • "ng/L), Pearl River (PFBS \0.03–3.4 ng/L) and Yangtze River (PFBS\0.005–2.1 ng/L) (So et al. 2007; Pan et al. 2011; Yang et al. 2011 "
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    ABSTRACT: The pollution level and source of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in mainstream and tributary of Daling River in northeast China were investigated in present study. Concentrations of PFASs in surface water and sediment ranged from 4.6 to 3,410 ng/L and from 0.08 to 2.6 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The lowest levels of PFASs were found in vicinity of a drinking water source located in upstream of Daling River. Xihe tributary, which is adjacent to two local fluorine industrial parks, contained the highest level of PFASs. Short-chain PFASs, including perfluorobutanoic acid and perfluorobutane sulfonate, were of higher levels due to their emerging as alternative products for perfluorooctane sulfonate. High level of perfluorooctanoic acid was also found in Daling River. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the relatively severe pollutions of Xihe tributary were caused by long-term development of the two local fluorine industry parks.
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    • "Pollutants from industrial and domestic wastewater have been discharged into these rivers and cause severe contamination. The mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the Hanjiang River were 81 and 51.8 ng L À1 , while in the Huangpu River they were 105 and 5.4 ng L À1 , respectively (So et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2013a). Relatively higher mean concentration of PFOA (169.04 ng L "
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    • "Particularly, increased levels of PFOS were observed in the eastern coastal region compared to other areas of China. PFOS values in Pearl River (Guangdong) and Taihu Lake (Jiangsu) even exceeded the water quality criterion (So et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2011). Therefore, it is an important priority to effectively reduce and control the pollution and ecological risks caused by PFOS-related chemicals in this region, for which systematic understanding of their sources and emission pattern is of great importance. "
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