Article

X-ray microbeams: Tumor therapy and central nervous system research

Department of Bio-system Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment (Impact Factor: 1.32). 09/2005; 548(1-2):30-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.03.062
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Irradiation with parallel arrays of thin, planar slices of X-ray beams (microplanar beams, or microbeams) spares normal tissue, including the central nervous system (CNS), and preferentially damages tumors. The effects are mediated, at least in part, by the tissue's microvasculature that seems to effectively repair itself in normal tissue but fails to do so in tumors. Consequently, the therapeutic index of single-fraction unidirectional microbeam irradiations has been shown to be larger than that of single-fraction unidirectional unsegmented beams in treating the intracranial rat 9L gliosarcoma tumor model (9LGS) and the subcutaneous murine mammary carcinoma EMT-6. This paper presents results demonstrating that individual microbeams, or arrays of parallel ones, can also be used for targeted, selective cell ablation in the CNS, and also to induce demyelination. The results highlight the value of the method as a powerful tool for studying the CNS through selective cell ablation, besides its potential as a treatment modality in clinical oncology.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Tetsuya Yuasa, Aug 20, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
202 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bifurcations are performed for a power system model consisting of two generators feeding a load, which is represented by an induction motor in parallel with a capacitor and a combination of constant power and impedance PQ load. The constant reactive power and the coefficient of the reactive impedance load are used as the control parameters. The response of the system undergoes saddle-node, subcritical and supercritical Hopf, cyclic-fold, and period-doubling bifurcations. The latter culminate in chaos. The chaotic solutions undergo boundary crises. The basin boundaries of the chaotic solutions may consist of the stable manifold of a saddle or an unstable limit cycle. A nonlinear controller is used to control the subcritical Hopf and the period-doubling bifurcations and hence mitigate voltage collapse
    Circuits and Systems, 1995. ISCAS '95., 1995 IEEE International Symposium on; 01/1995
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that x-rays delivered as arrays of parallel microplanar beams (microbeams), 25- to 90-microm thick and spaced 100-300 microm on-center, respectively, spare normal tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and preferentially damage tumors. However, such thin microbeams can only be produced by synchrotron sources and have other practical limitations to clinical implementation. To approach this problem, we first studied CNS tolerance to much thicker beams. Three of four rats whose spinal cords were exposed transaxially to four 400-Gy, 0.68-mm microbeams, spaced 4 mm, and all four rats irradiated to their brains with large, 170-Gy arrays of such beams spaced 1.36 mm, all observed for 7 months, showed no paralysis or behavioral changes. We then used an interlacing geometry in which two such arrays at a 90-degree angle produced the equivalent of a contiguous beam in the target volume only. By using this approach, we produced 90-, 120-, and 150-Gy 3.4 x 3.4 x 3.4 mm(3) exposures in the rat brain. MRIs performed 6 months later revealed focal damage within the target volume at the 120- and 150-Gy doses but no apparent damage elsewhere at 120 Gy. Monte Carlo calculations indicated a 30-microm dose falloff (80-20%) at the edge of the target, which is much less than the 2- to 5-mm value for conventional radiotherapy and radiosurgery. These findings strongly suggest potential application of interlaced microbeams to treat tumors or to ablate nontumorous abnormalities with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissue.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2006; 103(25):9709-14. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0603567103 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiosurgery involves the precise delivery of sharply collimated high-energy beams of radiation to a distinct target volume along selected trajectories. Historically, accurate targeting required the application of a stereotactic frame, thus limiting the use of this procedure to single treatments of selected intracranial lesions. However, the scope of radiosurgery has undergone a remarkable broadening since the introduction of image-guided robotic radiosurgery. Recent developments in real-time image guidance provide an effective frameless alternative to conventional radiosurgery and allow both the treatment of lesions outside the skull and the possibility of performing hypofractionation. As a consequence, targets in the spine, chest and abdomen can now also be radiosurgically ablated with submillimetric precision. Meanwhile, the combination of image guidance, robotic beam delivery, and non-isocentric inverse planning can greatly enhance the conformality and homogeneity of radiosurgery. The aim of this article is to describe the technological basis of image-guided radiosurgery and provide a perspective on future developments. The current clinical usage of robotic radiosurgery will be reviewed with an emphasis on those applications that may represent a major shift in the therapeutic paradigm.
    Computer Aided Surgery 08/2006; 11(4):161-74. DOI:10.3109/10929080600886393 · 1.08 Impact Factor
Show more