Assessing clients in their natural environments with electronic diaries: Rationale, benefits, limitations, and barriers
ABSTRACT Increasingly, mobile technologies are used to gather diary data in basic research and clinical studies. This article considers issues relevant to the integration of electronic diary (ED) methods in clinical assessment. EDs can be used to gather rich information regarding clients' day-to-day experiences, aiding diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment implementation, and treatment evaluation. The authors review the benefits of using diary methods in addition to retrospective assessments, and they review studies assessing whether EDs yield higher quality data than conventional, less expensive paper-pencil diaries. Practical considerations--including what platforms can be used to implement EDs, what features they should have, and considerations in designing diary protocols for sampling different types of clinical phenomena--are described. The authors briefly illustrate with examples some ways in which ED data could be summarized for clinical use. Finally, the authors consider barriers to clinical adoption of EDs. EDs are likely to become increasingly popular tools in routine clinical assessment as clinicians become more familiar with the logic of diary designs; as software packages evolve to meet the needs of clinicians; and as mobile technologies become ubiquitous, robust, and inexpensive.
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ABSTRACT: Executive Summary: Studying physiological responses under emotional and physical duress provides insight into decision-making, personal interactions, and handling of situations. This is especially important for those at high risk of chemical or biological toxin exposure. With the Iraq War and global terrorism a constant headline, it is vital to study the unique physiological responses of those exposed to hazardous biological and chemical agents. Supporting evidence suggests that emotional states carry their own physiological signals, and finding these differences will determine someone's current psychological and physiological state (Lisetti et al., 2004). While there have been other ways to measure physiological responses, biosensors—which are less obtrusive and yield better accuracy—have become a popular alternative for recording physiological data (Rochman et al., 2008). Introduction: Clinical biosensors detect physiological responses The Exmovere Empath watch contains biosensors that detect and measure heart rate, skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and physical activity. These measures discern the body's response to different emotions. In prior psychophysiological studies, these same biological measurements have created a better understanding of emotional states and unique responses. For example, the heart rate is an essential physiological component to measure because it represents parasympathetic activation, or the body's ability to return to homeostasis after a stressful event. The relevance is that a body exposed to biological or chemical toxins may find it more difficult to return to homeostasis than a healthy individual.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Prostate cancer survivors are keen to engage as active partners in the management of their condition but have voiced a number of unmet support needs that make effective self-management problematic. Identifying self-management behaviours and evaluating how self-management changes over time may provide valuable insights into how men can be better supported to self-manage. Our systematic review aimed to identify the self-management behaviours for prostate cancer survivors and to evaluate whether these change over time.Methods Using the PRISMA statement we performed a systematic review of studies that identified the self-management behaviours of prostate cancer survivors. Databases searched included: DARE, CDSR, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ASSIA. Studies were classified by levels of evidence and quality assessment.Results 111 publications were retrieved from the search and 5 publications were included. Men performed a variety of self-management behaviours for psychological and physical problems. Only one study assessed changes in self-management behaviours over time and was limited to men treated by radiotherapy.Conclusion Despite the recent political drive for cancer survivors to self-manage, this review has demonstrated the evidence base is under-developed and a wide range of research is needed to address the unmet supportive care needs of prostate cancer survivors. Practically, this review has identified that Dodd’s Self-Care Log was found to have the strongest psychometric properties for additional research in this area.01/2014; DOI:10.1177/1744987114523976