Movement of Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) through the Texas rice belt.
ABSTRACT Pheromone-baited traps were used to monitor the movement of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), through the Texas rice belt from 2000 to 2005. Based on location of discovery in each county and year, the average rate of spread from 1980 to 2005 was 23 km/yr. From 2000 to 2005, the leading edge of the infestation has moved 16.5 km/yr toward Louisiana. The 1.8-fold increase (99% confidence interval) of the area occupied from 2000 to 2005 in the Texas rice belt indicates an expansion of the distribution of E. loftini. If movement continues to occur at similar rates, E. loftini will reach Louisiana by 2008.
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ABSTRACT: Two sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, varieties were grown in the greenhouse under well watered or drought conditions to examine the influences of stress on Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), oviposition preference and selected nutritional components without impinging factors common to field conditions that alter responses. Our research revealed that, under controlled conditions, drought induced a wider range and greater uniformity of free amino acid (FAA) accumulations than have been previously reported. Drought stress resulted in increased dry leaf tissue and elevated concentrations of 7 of 9 detectable free essential (for insect health) amino acids in stalks, the chief food of Mexican rice borer larvae. Stressed sugarcane was preferred for oviposition, likely related to greater numbers of dry leaves and heightened host plant nutritional quality. Dry leaf tissue, which is not consumed, may be a cue for improving chances of larvae encountering nutrient-enhanced living tissue, and for concealing eggs in folds. Excised dry leaf tissue from the treatments was indistinguishable for oviposition preference; therefore, biochemical status of living tissue may provide oviposition cues. Varieties exhibited no major genotypic differences in FAA accumulations or oviposition preference.01/2010;
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ABSTRACT: Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.Environmental Entomology 10/2011; 40(5):1036-50. · 1.31 Impact Factor