Overweight and Obese Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women Exhibit Increased Abnormal Mammary Epithelial Cytology
High body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m2) is associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, few studies have explored associations between BMI and direct measures on target tissue. Epithelial cytology was assessed in 62 high-risk perimenopausal and postmenopausal women using random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Masood cytology index scores were significantly higher among women with BMIs >or=25 kg/m2 than in women with BMIs <25 kg/m2 (13.9 +/- 0.42 versus 12.7 +/- 0.29 kg/m2; P = 0.017). Overweight or obese women also had significantly higher random periareolar fine needle aspiration epithelial cell counts compared with those who were normal weight (1,230 +/- 272 versus 521 +/- 185; P = 0.028). These data suggest that overweight in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women is associated with direct cytologic abnormalities within the breast. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine if this potential biomarker is responsive to changes in body weight resulting from diet and/or exercise interventions.
Available from: Victoria Seewaldt
- "Obesity is a known preventable cause of cancer, accounting for up to 20% of cancer deaths in women, with the highest body mass index (BMI) category (BMI > 40 kg/m2) conferring higher risk . Previous studies have shown an association between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and excessive body weight, and this association is increased in women with a positive family history of breast cancer [2, 3]. In addition, women who are obese have an increased risk of dying from breast cancer as well as an increased risk of distant metastasis [4, 5]. "
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the most important known preventable causes of cancer, accounting for up to 20% of cancer deaths in women. Obese women have increased risk of dying from breast cancer as well as an increased risk of distant metastasis. Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) is a group of metabolic conditions that include 1) abdominal obesity, 2) atherogenic dyslipidemia, 3) elevated blood pressure, and 4) insulin resistance. MetSyn is known to promote the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and may be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Emerging evidence supports an association between mammary adipocytes and their secreted adipocytokines and breast cancer initiation and progression. Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes and MetSyn. We review the potential association between MetSyn in promoting breast cancer and emerging evidence for the use of metformin in cancer prevention.
Current Breast Cancer Reports 09/2011; 3(3):142-150. DOI:10.1007/s12609-011-0050-8
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the dielectric properties of LiTaO<sub>3</sub> and LiNbO<sub>3</sub> in the THz regime by measuring the dynamics of coherently generated phonon-polaritons. The dielectric response of these ferroelectric crystals is dominated by the lowest-energy lattice vibration of A<sub>1</sub> symmetry. This so-called ferroelectric mode is associated with a strong absorption peak at 6 THz (200 cm<sup>-1</sup>) in LiTaO3 and at 7.5 THz (250 cm<sup>-1</sup>) in LiNbO <sub>3</sub>. The properties of these vibrations are strongly affected by the displacement of ions which occurs when the lattice temperature approaches the ferroelectric phase transition temperature. The dielectric properties of LiTaO<sub>3</sub> and LiNbO<sub>3</sub> can be described by modelling these modes with a microscopic vibrational potential within one unit cell. The structure of this potential determines critically the polariton response. Therefore, the experimental determination of the phonon-polariton dispersion and damping provides information about the microscopic properties of LiTaO <sub>3</sub> and LiNbO<sub>3</sub>
Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, 1994. NLO '94 IEEE; 08/1994
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients after bariatric surgery. However, obesity itself has also been associated with decreased vitamin D. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in obese persons has not previously been compared to non-obese controls when controlling for factors that could affect vitamin D status.
We evaluated 25 hydroxy vitamin D, iPTH, calcium, albumin, and creatinine in 41 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We then compared them to healthy non-obese controls matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and season of vitamin D measurement.
Ninety percent of the pre-bariatric surgery patients had 25-OH-D levels <75 nmol/l, and 61% had 25-OH-D levels <50 nmol/l versus 32 and 12% in controls, respectively. Additionally, 49% of the pre-bariatric surgery patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism versus 2% of controls. These differences persisted after controlling for sunlight exposure and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D. Mean calcium, corrected for albumin, and creatinine were not significantly different between the groups, but mean albumin levels were significantly lower among surgery patients.
Vitamin D deficiency is common in obese patients at the time of bariatric surgery and is also accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism approximately half the time. These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency after bariatric surgery is multifactorial and in part caused by preoperative vitamin D deficiency rather than postoperative malabsorption alone. In this study, increased vitamin D deficiency in obese persons cannot be explained by a difference in calcium/vitamin D intake or sunlight exposure.
Obesity Surgery 02/2008; 18(2):145-50. DOI:10.1007/s11695-007-9315-8 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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