Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in hypertension

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 05/2007; 49(5):981-5. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.087338
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor and pathophysiological mechanisms may include a stiff vascular tree. Although smokers have stiffer arteries, whether smoking cessation is associated with reduced arterial stiffness is not known. We compared never-treated patients with essential hypertension (n=554) aged 18 to 80 years (56% females) classified as current smokers (n=150), ex-smokers (n=136), and nonsmokers (n=268). Ex-smokers were categorized into <1 year, >1 and <10 years, and >10 years of smoking cessation. Measurements included aortic stiffness, assessed as pulse wave velocity (Complior), wave reflection (augmentation index [AIx]), and transit time (T(R)) (Sphygmocor). Current and ex-smokers had significantly higher pulse wave velocity and AIx compared with nonsmokers (pulse wave velocity for current smokers: 10.7+/-0.2; ex-smokers: 10.6+/-0.2; nonsmokers: 9.9+/-0.1 m/s; P<0.001; AIx for current smokers: 31+/-1; ex-smokers: 30+/-1; nonsmokers: 27+/-0.8%; P<0.05), whereas T(R) was lower in current and ex-smokers compared with nonsmokers (T(R) for current smokers: 131+/-1.0; ex-smokers: 135+/-1; nonsmokers: 137+/-0.8 m/s; P<0.0001). There was a significant linear relationship between smoking status and pulse wave velocity (P<0.001), AIx (P<0.001), and T(R) (P<0.001), even after adjusting for age, sex, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and body mass index. In ex-smokers, duration of smoking cessation had a significant linear relationship with improvement in pulse wave velocity (P<0.001), AIx (P<0.001), and T(R) (P<0.001), with arterial stiffness parameters returning to nonsignificant levels after a decade of smoking cessation.

Download full-text


Available from: Noor Ahmed Jatoi, Jun 20, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Present piece of study was conducted to evaluate whether hypertension is associated with cigarette smoking in Pakistan. Study started with random screening of the inhabitants of the area for smoking, hypertension and associated risk factors. A self administered questionnaire was prepared for this purpose. Overweight and obesity were assessed by body mass index and hypertension by recording of blood pressure. Amongst the total 3382 selected volunteers, smokers were 933, they had significantly higher systolic blood pressure Mean ± SD 130.1±16.33 mm Hg, CV 12.1 against 127.6±15.19, CV 11.9, diastolic pressure 87.2±11.28 mm Hg, CV 12.9, against 84.8±9.80, CV 11.5. Slightly changes in mean arterial pressure noted in smokers 101.5±6.63, CV 18.4, compared to non smokers, it was 99.1±7.77, C.V 18.2. Smokers also had significantly higher pulse rate 78.6±7.24 compared to 68.8±5.76 beats/minute in non smokers. Smoking had significant correlation with SBP, DBP, MAP and BMI,-.311,-.312,-.313 and. 255 respectively. Similarly, prevalence of hypertension in smokers was higher (23.5%) than in non smokers (16.4%).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5 ± 2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all p < 0.01). Augmentation index (AIx) decreased with either classical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all p < 0.01). When music preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p = 0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p = 0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p = NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all p < 0.01). Music, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Atherosclerosis 05/2015; 240(1). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.03.010 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health.
    Cardiovascular Toxicology 09/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1007/s12012-014-9280-0 · 2.06 Impact Factor