Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence: what do the data tell us?

VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton Campus, Brockton, Massachusetts, USA.
Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Impact Factor: 0.58). 02/2006; 29(3):208-12.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence commonly co-occur with alcohol dependence. However, treatment for tobacco dependence is not routinely included in alcohol treatment programs, largely because of concerns that addressing both addictions concurrently would be too difficult for patients and would adversely affect recovery from alcoholism. To the contrary, research shows that smoking cessation does not disrupt alcohol abstinence and may actually enhance the likelihood of longer-term sobriety. Smokers in alcohol treatment or recovery face particular challenges regarding smoking cessation. Researchers and clinicians should take these circumstances into account when determining how best to treat these patients' tobacco dependence.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 11/2013; 122(4):1154-65. DOI:10.1037/a0034538 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nearly 80% of substance dependent individuals also use tobacco, and smoking cessation efforts during treatment for other substance use is associated with similar or even improved outcomes. However, smoking cessation is not routinely addressed during treatment for substance use disorders. The present study tested a computerized brief motivational intervention (C-BMI) for smoking cessation in an understudied population: a cohort recruited from a recovery community organization (RCO) center. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to either a 30-minute C-BMI plus access to free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or an information-only control group plus NRT access. Reductions in CO were observed for both groups. Quit rates in the C-BMI group (5%-7%, vs. 0% for the control group) approximated those observed elsewhere for physician advice and minimal counseling. Participants in the C-BMI group were also more likely to express a desire to quit. Computer-delivered smoking cessation interventions within RCOs appear feasible. These organizations treat a wide variety of individuals, and C-BMIs for smoking in this context have the potential to reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality.
    Contemporary clinical trials 04/2014; 38(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.03.008 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the prevalence of and factors (psychological climate for change and staff attributes) related to indoor and outdoor tobacco bans for patients, employees, and visitors in U.S. substance use disorder treatment programs. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,026 program administrators. Almost all programs banned tobacco use indoors and around one third banned tobacco use outdoors. When there was no tobacco ban, the majority of programs restricted smoking to designated indoor and/or outdoor areas. Further, all psychological climate for change factors (perceived program support, perceived tobacco culture, and tobacco ban beliefs) but none of the staff attributes (percentage licensed/certified clinicians, percentage clinicians with master's degrees, total staff with education in health-related field) were significantly related to the implementation of comprehensive tobacco bans (both indoors and outdoors).
    Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10488-015-0636-y · 3.44 Impact Factor