Modulation of liver X receptor signaling as novel therapy for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose homeostasis. LXR agonists are effective for treatment of murine models of atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Recently we observed that LXR agonists suppressed proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells in vitro and treatment of mice with the LXR agonist T0901317 suppressed the growth of prostate tumor xenografts. LXR agonists appear to cause G1 cell cycle arrest in cells by reducing expression of Skp2 and inducing the accumulation of p27(Kip). T0901317 induced expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and delayed the progression of androgen-dependent human prostate tumor xenografts towards androgen-independency in mice. Phytosterols, the plant equivalent of mammalian cholesterol, have recently been shown to be agonists for LXRs. beta-Sitosterol and campesterol, the two most common phytosterols, suppressed proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells. The anticancer activity of phytosterols may be due to LXR signaling. This review examines the potential use of LXR signaling as a therapeutic target in prostate and other cancers.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cholesterol is a fundamental molecule for life. Located in the cell membrane, this sterol participates to the cell signaling of growth factors. Inside the cell it can be converted in hormones such as androgens or modulate the immune response. Such important functions could not be solely dependent of external supply by diet hence de novo synthesis could occur from acetate in almost all mammalian cells. If a deficiency in cholesterol sourcing leads to development troubles, overstocking has been associated to various diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers. Cholesterol homeostasis should thus be tightly regulated at the uptake, de novo synthesis, storage and export processes. Various transcription factors have been described these last years as important to regulate cholesterol levels. Besides, synthetic molecules have been developed for many years to modulate cholesterol synthesis, such as statins. Many articles have associated prostate cancer, whose incidence is constantly increasing, to cholesterol disequilibrium. Targeting cholesterol could thus be a new pharmacological hit to counteract the initiation, development and/or progression of prostate cancer. Among the transcription factors regulating cholesterol homeostasis, the nuclear receptors Liver X Receptors (LXRs) control cholesterol uptake and export. Targeting the LXRs offers a new field of investigation to treat cancer. This review highlights the molecular relationships among LXRs, prostate cancer and cholesterol and why LXRs have good chance to be targeted one day in this tumor. LXRs, prostate cancer and cholesterol, more than a "Ménage à trois", The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.American journal of cancer research. 01/2013; 3(1):58-69.
Article: Caffeic Acid phenethyl ester as a potential treatment for advanced prostate cancer targeting akt signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, most prostate cancer patients receiving the androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent castration-resistant tumors within 1-3 years after treatment. The median overall survival time is 1-2 years after tumor relapse. Chemotherapy shows little effect on prolonging survival for patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. More than 80% of prostate tumors acquire mutation or deletion of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt signaling, indicating that inhibition of PI3K/Akt might be a potential therapy for advanced prostate tumors. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. CAPE is a well-known NF-κB inhibitor. CAPE has been used in folk medicine as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment suppresses tumor growth and Akt signaling in human prostate cancer cells. We discuss the potential of using CAPE as a treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer targeting Akt signaling pathway in this review article.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(3):5264-83. · 2.60 Impact Factor
Article: Lack of Liver X Receptors leads to cell proliferation in a model of mouse dorsal prostate epithelial[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies underline the implication of Liver X Receptors (LXRs) in several prostate diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we derived epithelial cells from dorsal prostate (MPECs) of wild type (WT) or Lxrab2/2 mice. In the WT MPECs, our results show that LXR activation reduces proliferation and correlates with the modification of the AKT-survival pathway. Moreover, LXRs regulate lipid homeostasis with the regulation of Abca1, Abcg1 and Idol, and, in a lesser extent, Srebp1, Fas and Acc. Conversely cells derived from Lxrab2/2 mice show a higher basal phosphorylation and consequently activation of the survival/proliferation transduction pathways AKT and MAPK. Altogether, our data point out that the cell model we developed allows deciphering the molecular mechanisms inducing the cell cycle arrest. Besides, we show that activated LXRs regulate AKT and MAPK transduction pathways and demonstrate that LXRs could be good pharmacological targets in prostate disease such as cancer.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3). · 4.09 Impact Factor