Dietary zinc intake and sex differences in taste acuity in healthy young adults.
ABSTRACT Previous research suggests that adequate dietary zinc intake may be important in determining the sensory experience of food, appetite and consequently, dietary quality. The aim of this pilot study was to explore relationships between taste sensitivity and dietary zinc intake in healthy young adults (age 20-40 years: 24 male, mean age +/- SD = 27 +/- 4.86 years; 26 female, mean age +/- SD = 23 +/- 2.10).
A signal detection method was used to assess taste acuity for the four basic tastes: sweet (glucose), sour (citric acid), salt (sodium chloride) and bitter (quinine). A 4-day food diary was used to determine dietary intakes of zinc (mg day(-1)) and salt.
Males reported a higher zinc intake than females (P=0.001). Higher dietary zinc intake was associated with better taste acuity for salt in females (P=0.017) but not in males. Acuity for bitter taste appeared to be related to zinc intake in males (P=0.007) but not females. Among those whose average daily zinc intake was below the RNI, males were less sensitive than females to sour (P=0.02) and bitter (P=0.014) taste.
These findings suggest that zinc is more important for taste acuity in males than females and indicate the importance of taking sex differences into account when studying taste acuity.
- SourceAvailable from: Yoshiko Kato[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, the frequency and the preference for eating foods rich in zinc, dietary habits, and restrained eating among Japanese female undergraduate students. Forty-three subjects be-tween the ages of 20 and 22 participated in this study. After a taste-sensitivity test for sweetness and saltiness the stu-dents completed a food list indicating the intake frequency and preference of foods rich in zinc and their eating habits. The students were divided into four groups: high salt-taste sensitivity (SA-HG), low salt-taste sensitivity (SA-LG), high sweet-taste sensitivity (SW-HG), and low sweet-taste sensitivity (SW-LG). Individuals in the SA-HG group ate more foods rich in zinc and were more concerned with their health than those in the SA-LG group. Further, the SW-LG group ate more convenience foods than the SW-HG group. High salt-taste sensitivity could be predicted by eating more but less preference of foods rich in zinc, less snacking, and greater regularity of meals. On the other hand there is a signifi-cant positive relationship between the frequencies of eating and preference for foods rich in zinc. This means the results were inconsistent, further research is needed to clarify this point.Food and Nutrition Sciences 01/2012; 03(03). DOI:10.4236/fns.2012.33044
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined salty taste acuity and salty taste preference and sodium intake in relation to zinc nutritional status in 2 rural populations in Korea. And we also examined the main food contributors of their sodium intakes. We enrolled 218 adults (66 men and 152 women) from the Kangneung and Samcheok regions in Korea's Kangwon province in our study conducted from December 2011 to February 2012. Participants from each region were divided into 3 groups based on their serum zinc level (T1: lowest, T2: intermediate, T3: highest). We compared the salty taste acuity and preference, Na index (Dish Frequency Questionnaire for estimation of habitual sodium intake), blood pressure, and intakes of nutrients including sodium by 3 groups of serum zinc level. The results were as follows: a higher serum zinc level indicated a lower sodium intake and Na index (P < 0.05). The salty taste acuity was considerably higher for participants from the Kangneung region than those from the Samcheok region (P < 0.05). And the serum zinc level was significantly higher in participants from the Kangneung region than those from the Samcheok region (P < 0.05). We further divided the participants into 2 groups: those who consumed more zinc than the recommended intake (RI) and the others. We compared salty taste acuity and salty taste preference in the 2 groups. The salty taste threshold and palatable salty taste concentrations were lower for the group with a zinc intake above RI than for the group with zinc intake below the RI. However, the difference was not significant. This study confirms that taste function differs depending on zinc nutritional status. In future, it is required to a large-scale, long-term, prospective study on the correlation between zinc intake, serum zinc levels, and taste perception function and blood pressure.Nutrition research and practice 12/2012; 6(6):534-41. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2012.6.6.534 · 1.13 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: New fertilizing strategies (with exogenetic N, P, Se, and Zn) were explored to regulate the element (Se, Zn, Mn, and Al) and functional component (polyphenol, catechins, free amino acid, polysaccharide, and caffeine) contents of new (a bud and two leaves, grown for about 10 days) and old tea leaves (grown for >3 months) cultivated in a hilly red soil region. Using four different fertilizing strategies (A, Se + Zn; B, Se + Zn + N; C, Se + Zn + P; D, Se + Zn + N + P), the Al and Mn contents of tea leaves in both new and old leaves were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the contents of Se and Zn were increased, and the contents of some functional components as well as the antioxidant activities in tea leaves were improved. In particular, fertilizing strategy C showed the highest Se (0.444 μg/kg), total polyphenol (28.294%), and catechins (131.852 mg/g) contents and antioxidant activities (DPPH, 95.06%; FRAP, 3.81 mmol FeSO4/g; reducing power, 1.26) as well as the lowest Al (222.005 mg/kg) content among these four strategies, whereas fertilizing strategy B showed the highest Zn (34.235 mg/kg), total free amino acid (5.60%), tea polysaccharide (5.79%), and caffeine (56.684 mg/g) contents as well as the lowest Mn content (747.658 mg/kg). It has been proven that exogenetic elements (N, P, Se, and Zn) as fertilizers could be an effective way to produce tea leaves with higher Se, Zn, and functional component contents and antioxidant activity as well as lower Al and Mn contents in a red soil region.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2014; 62(17). DOI:10.1021/jf5004286 · 3.11 Impact Factor