Article

The importance of lactic acid bacteria for phytate degradation during cereal dough fermentation.

Distaam, Università degli Studi del Molise, Via De Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 05/2007; 55(8):2993-7. DOI: 10.1021/jf063507n
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lactic acid fermentation of cereal flours resulted in a 100 (rye), 95-100 (wheat), and 39-47% (oat) reduction in phytate content within 24 h. The extent of phytate degradation was shown to be independent from the lactic acid bacteria strain used for fermentation. However, phytate degradation during cereal dough fermentation was positively correlated with endogenous plant phytase activity (rye, 6750 mU g(-1); wheat, 2930 mU g(-1); and oat, 23 mU g(-1)), and heat inactivation of the endogenous cereal phytases prior to lactic acid fermentation resulted in a complete loss of phytate degradation. Phytate degradation was restored after addition of a purified phytase to the liquid dough. Incubation of the cereal flours in buffered solutions resulted in a pH-dependent phytate degradation. The optimum of phytate degradation was shown to be around pH 5.5. Studies on phytase production of 50 lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from sourdoughs, did not result in a significant production of intra- as well as extracellular phytase activity. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria do not participate directly in phytate degradation but provide favorable conditions for the endogenous cereal phytase activity by lowering the pH value.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
313 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The influence of cereal blends, teff-white sorghum (TwS), barley-wheat (BW) and wheat-red sorghum (WrS), on fermentation kinetics during traditional fermentation of dough to prepare injera, an Ethiopian traditional fermented pancake, was investigated in samples collected in households. Barley malt was used with BW and WrS flours. WrS- and BW-injera sourdough fermentations were characterised by a transient accumulation of glucose and maltose and a two-step fermentation process: lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation with ethanol as the main end product. Only transient accumulation of glucose was observed in TwS-injera, and equimolar concentrations of lactic acid and ethanol were produced simultaneously. Final α-galactoside concentrations were low in all sourdoughs. Phytic acid (IP6) was completely hydrolyzed in WrS and BW-injeras probably due to the combined action of endogenous malt and microbial phytases. Only 28% IP6 hydrolysis was observed in TwS injera. Ways to improve IP6 hydrolysis in TwS-injera need to be investigated.
    Food Chemistry 05/2013; 138(1):430-6. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients.
    Food Microbiology 02/2014; 37C:30-40. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in-feed to improve digestibility and reduce anti-nutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector, pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants similar to the molecular weight of B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty vector transformants. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri was administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to chickens fed a phosphorus adequate control diet demonstrating proof-of-principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics.
    Applied and environmental microbiology 11/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
1,438 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014