Inhibition by L-aspartol adenylate of a nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase reveals differences between the interactions of its active site with tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn).
ABSTRACT Asparaginyl-tRNA formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 involves a nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) which forms Asp-tRNA(Asp) and Asp-tRNA(Asn), and a tRNA-dependent amidotransferase which transamidates the latter into Asn-tRNA(Asn). We report here that the inhibition of this ND-AspRS by L-aspartol adenylate (Asp-ol-AMP), a stable analog of the natural reaction intermediate L-aspartyl adenylate, is biphasic because the aspartylation of the two tRNA substrates of ND-AspRS, tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn), are inhibited with different Ki values (41 microM and 215 microM, respectively). These results reveal that the two tRNA substrates of ND-AspRS interact differently with its active site. Yeast tRNA(Asp) transcripts with some identity elements replaced by those of tRNA(Asn) have their aspartylation inhibited with Ki values different from that for the wild-type transcript. Therefore, aminoacyl adenylate analogs, which are competitive inhibitors of their cognate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, can be used to probe rapidly the role of various structural elements in positioning the tRNA acceptor end in the active site.
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ABSTRACT: Human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs), the enzymes which esterify tRNAs with the cognate specific amino acid, form mainly a different set of proteins than those involved in the cytosolic translation machinery. Many of the mt-aaRSs are of bacterial-type in regard of sequence and modular structural organization. However, the few enzymes investigated so far do have peculiar biochemical and enzymological properties such as decreased solubility, decreased specific activity and enlarged spectra of substrate tRNAs (of same specificity but from various organisms and kingdoms), as compared to bacterial aaRSs. Here the sensitivity of human mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) to small substrate analogs (non-hydrolysable adenylates) known as inhibitors of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa AspRSs is evaluated and compared to the sensitivity of eukaryal cytosolic human and bovine AspRSs. L-aspartol-adenylate (aspartol-AMP) is a competitive inhibitor of aspartylation by mitochondrial as well as cytosolic mammalian AspRSs, with K(i) values in the micromolar range (4-27 microM for human mt- and mammalian cyt-AspRSs). 5'-O-[N-(L-aspartyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Asp-AMS) is a 500-fold stronger competitive inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme than aspartol-AMP (10nM) and a 35-fold lower competitor of human and bovine cyt-AspRSs (300 nM). The higher sensitivity of human mt-AspRS for both inhibitors as compared to either bacterial or mammalian cytosolic enzymes, is not correlated with clear-cut structural features in the catalytic site as deduced from docking experiments, but may result from dynamic events. In the scope of new antibacterial strategies directed against aaRSs, possible side effects of such drugs on the mitochondrial human aaRSs should thus be considered.Biochimie 03/2009; 91(5):596-603. · 3.02 Impact Factor
Article: The asparagine-transamidosome from Helicobacter pylori: a dual-kinetic mode in non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase safeguards the genetic code.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori catalyzes Asn-tRNA(Asn) formation by use of the indirect pathway that involves charging of Asp onto tRNA(Asn) by a non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS), followed by conversion of the mischarged Asp into Asn by the GatCAB amidotransferase. We show that the partners of asparaginylation assemble into a dynamic Asn-transamidosome, which uses a different strategy than the Gln-transamidosome to prevent the release of the mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA intermediate. The complex is described by gel-filtration, dynamic light scattering and kinetic measurements. Two strategies for asparaginylation are shown: (i) tRNA(Asn) binds GatCAB first, allowing aminoacylation and immediate transamidation once ND-AspRS joins the complex; (ii) tRNA(Asn) is bound by ND-AspRS which releases the Asp-tRNA(Asn) product much slower than the cognate Asp-tRNA(Asp); this kinetic peculiarity allows GatCAB to bind and transamidate Asp-tRNA(Asn) before its release by the ND-AspRS. These results are discussed in the context of the interrelation between the Asn and Gln-transamidosomes which use the same GatCAB in H. pylori, and shed light on a kinetic mechanism that ensures faithful codon reassignment for Asn.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(11):4965-76. · 8.03 Impact Factor