Differential impact of retrotransposon populations on the genome of allotetraploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).
ABSTRACT LTR-retrotransposons contribute substantially to the structural diversity of plant genomes. Recent models of genome evolution suggest that retrotransposon amplification is offset by removal of retrotransposon sequences, leading to a turnover of retrotransposon populations. While bursts of amplification have been documented, it is not known whether removal of retrotransposon sequences occurs continuously, or is triggered by specific stimuli over short evolutionary periods. In this work, we have characterized the evolutionary dynamics of four populations of copia-type retrotransposons in allotetraploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its two diploid progenitors Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis. We have used SSAP (Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphism) to evaluate the contribution retrotransposons have made to the diversity of tobacco and its diploid progenitor species, to quantify the contribution each diploid progenitor has made to tobacco's retrotransposon populations, and to estimate losses or amplifications of retrotransposon sequences subsequent to tobacco's formation. Our results show that the tobacco genome derives from a turnover of retrotransposon sequences with removals concomitant with new insertions. We have detected unique behaviour specific to each retrotransposon population, with differences likely reflecting distinct evolutionary histories and activities of particular elements. Our results indicate that the retrotransposon content of a given plant species is strongly influenced by the host evolutionary history, with periods of rapid turnover of retrotransposon sequences stimulated by allopolyploidy.
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ABSTRACT: Polyploidy, the possession of more than 2 complete genomes, is a major force in plant evolution known to affect the genetic and genomic constitution and the phenotype of an organism, which will have consequences for its ecology and geography as well as for lineage diversification and speciation. In this review, we discuss phylogenetic patterns in the incidence of polyploidy including possible underlying causes, the role of polyploidy for diversification, the effects of polyploidy on geographical and ecological patterns, and putative underlying mechanisms as well as chromosome evolution and evolution of repetitive DNA following polyploidization. Spurred by technological advances, a lot has been learned about these aspects both in model and increasingly also in nonmodel species. Despite this enormous progress, long-standing questions about polyploidy still cannot be unambiguously answered, due to frequently idiosyncratic outcomes and insufficient integration of different organizational levels (from genes to ecology), but likely this will change in the near future. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Choleva and Janko in this themed issue.Cytogenetic and Genome Research 06/2013; 140(2-4). DOI:10.1159/000351727 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role played by whole-genome duplication (WGD) in evolution and adaptation is particularly well illustrated in allopolyploids, where WGD is concomitant with interspecific hybridization. This 'Genome Shock', usually accompanied by structural and functional modifications, has been associated with the activation of transposable elements (TEs). However, the impact of allopolyploidy on TEs has been studied in only a few polyploid species, and not in Brassica, which has been marked by recurrent polyploidy events. Here, we developed sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) markers for three contrasting TEs, and compared profiles between resynthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids and their diploid Brassica progenitors. To evaluate restructuring at TE insertion sites, we scored changes in SSAP profiles and analysed a large set of differentially amplified SSAP bands. No massive structural changes associated with the three TEs surveyed were detected. However, several transposition events, specific to the youngest TE originating from the B. oleracea genome, were identified. Our study supports the hypothesis that TE responses to allopolyploidy are highly specific. The changes observed in SSAP profiles lead us to hypothesize that they may partly result from changes in DNA methylation, questioning the role of epigenetics during the formation of a new allopolyploid genome.New Phytologist 02/2013; DOI:10.1111/nph.12156 · 6.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco, 2n?=?4x?=?48) is an allotetraploid with 24 S-genome chromosomes (from a diploid related to N.?sylvestris) and 24 T-genome chromosomes (from a diploid related to N.?tomentosiformis). The BY-2 suspension cell culture, derived from N.?tabacum cultivar Bright Yellow 2, has been used extensively for research in molecular and cell biology for almost 40 years; a Web of Knowledge search reveals that it has been used over 150 times since 2008 alone, largely for cell cycle and plant physiology studies. However, we show that this culture is unstable and, as with other long-term cultures, exists as a community of cells with different karyotypes reflected in different chromosome numbers, morphologies and distributions of satellite repeats, At least one rearranged chromosome type was found in all cells investigated in detail. In comparison with N.?tabacum, one satellite repeat, NTRS, has become dispersed across several chromosomes and there is complete homogenization of 35S rRNA genes towards T-genome type rDNA units. Karyotype divergence should be considered when using BY-2 cells for plant physiology or cell cycle/development studies in the future. (c) 2012 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2012, 170, 459471.Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 11/2012; 170(3-3):459-471. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01280.x · 2.70 Impact Factor