Nicotine improves cognitive deficits of dopamine transporter knockout mice without long-term tolerance.

Inserm, U513, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Psychiatrie, University Paris 12, Créteil, France.
Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 7.83). 01/2008; 32(12):2465-78. DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301385
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Various studies suggest a dysfunction of nicotinic neurotransmission in schizophrenia and establish that patients suffering from schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a high tobacco consumption, potentially for the purpose of self-medication. Owing to its neuroprotective and procognitive effects, transdermal nicotine was proposed to be an effective treatment of some neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Mice deficient in the dopamine transporter (DAT KO) exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of schizophrenia and ADHD, including hyperdopaminergia, hyperactivity, paradoxical calming by methylphenidate and cognitive deficits, some of which being improved by antipsychotic agents. We recently demonstrated that nicotinic receptor content and function were profoundly modified in DAT KO mice. In this study, we assessed the effects of a chronic nicotine treatment in the drinking water on the nicotine-induced locomotion, anxiety status and learning performance. Chronically nicotine-treated DAT KO mice were always hypersensitive to the hypolocomotor effect of nicotine without tolerance and did not exhibit the anxiogenic effect of nicotine treatment observed in WT mice. Very interestingly, both acute and chronic nicotine treatments greatly improved their deficits in the cued and spatial learning, without eliciting tolerance. We speculate that the procognitive effects of nicotine in DAT KO mice are related to the upregulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala, and prelimbic cortex, all areas involved in cognition. Data from our studies on DAT KO mice shed light on the nicotine self-medication in psychiatric patients and suggest that nicotinic agonists could favorably lead to additional therapy of psychiatric diseases.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A clearer understanding of the basis for the association between cannabis use and psychotic experiences (PEs) is required. Our aim was to examine the extent to which associations between cannabis and cigarette use and PEs are due to confounding.
    Psychological Medicine 04/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methylphenidate, which target the dopamine transporter (DAT), are the most frequently used drugs for the treatment of hyperactivity and cognitive deficits in humans with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While psychostimulants can increase activity in healthy subjects, they exert a "paradoxical" calming effect in humans with ADHD as well as in hyperactive mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT-KO mice). However, the mechanism of action of these drugs and their impact on cognition in the absence of DAT remain poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of psychostimulants and noradrenergic and serotonergic drugs on cognition in DAT-KO mice and normal (WT) littermates. We used a recently developed behavioral apparatus, the automated H-maze. The H-maze involves the consecutive learning of three different rules: delayed alternation, nonalternation, and reversal tasks. Treatment of WT animals with the psychostimulants replicated the behavior observed in untreated DAT-KO mice while "paradoxically" restoring cognitive performances in DAT-KO mice. Further investigation of the potential involvement of other monoamine systems in the regulation of cognitive functions showed that the norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine restored cognitive performances in DAT-KO mice without affecting hyperactivity. In contrast, the nonselective serotonin receptor agonist 5CT, which antagonizes hyperactivity in DAT-KO mice, had no effect on cognitive functions. Taken together, these data allow dissociation of the locomotor and cognitive effects of ADHD drugs and suggest that the combination of DAT-KO mice with the automated H-maze can constitute a powerful experimental paradigm for the preclinical development of therapeutic approaches for ADHD.
    Psychopharmacology 08/2013; 231(1). · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia and substance use disorders (SUD) often occur together, yet it is unclear why this is the case or how best to manage dual diagnosis. Rodent models are well suited to study how genes and environment interact to impact neurodevelopment, brain function and behaviors relevant to dual diagnosis. Indeed a variety of rodent models for schizophrenia display behavioral and physiological features relevant to SUD including: neurodevelopmental models, models of a rare variant (Disc1), to models of common variants (neurexin, dysbindin and neuregulin), and models of various gene-drug interactions. Thus it may be worthwhile to probe models of schizophrenia for insights relevant to SUD and dual diagnosis. However, future studies on dual diagnosis should involve characterization beyond measuring locomotor responses to self-administration tasks, include drug classes other than psychostimulants, and dissect the neuroadaptations that underlie risk for dual diagnosis.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 04/2013; · 10.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014