Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment can be separated from lipofuscin accumulation in aged human skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT According to the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a driving force of the aging process, and it is generally believed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of increased oxidative stress in tissues with high content of mitochondria, such as muscle or brain. However, recent experiments in mouse models of premature aging have questioned the role of mitochondrial ROS production in premature aging. To address the role of mitochondrial impairment and ROS production for aging in human muscles, we have analyzed mitochondrial properties in muscle fibres isolated from the vastus lateralis of young and elderly donors. Mitochondrial respiratory functions were addressed by high-resolution respirometry, and ROS production was analyzed by in situ staining with the redox-sensitive dye dihydroethidium. We found that aged human skeletal muscles contain fully functional mitochondria and that the level of ROS production is higher in young compared to aged muscle. Accordingly, we could not find any increase in oxidative modification of proteins in muscle from elderly donors. However, the accumulation of lipofuscin was identified as a robust marker of human muscle aging. The data support a model, where ROS-induced molecular damage is continuously removed, preventing the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria despite ongoing ROS production.
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ABSTRACT: Normal metabolism is associated with unavoidable mild oxidative stress resulting in biomolecular damage that cannot be totally repaired or removed by cellular degradative systems, including lysosomes, proteasomes, and cytosolic and mitochondrial proteases. Consequently, irreversibly damaged and functionally defective structures (biological 'garbage') accumulate within long-lived postmitotic cells, such as cardiac myocytes and neurons, leading to progressive loss of adaptability and increased probability of death and characterizing a process called aging, or senescence. Intralysosomal 'garbage' is represented by lipofuscin (age pigment), an undegradable autophagocytosed material, while extralysosomal 'garbage' involves oxidatively modified cytosolic proteins, altered biomembranes, defective mitochondria and other organelles. In aged postmitotic cells, heavily lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes perform poorly, resulting in the enhanced accumulation of defective mitochondria, which in turn produce more reactive oxygen species causing additional damage (the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory). Potential anti-aging strategies may involve not only overall reduction of oxidative stress, but also the use of intralysosomal iron chelators hampering Fenton-type chemistry as well as the stimulation of cellular degradative systems.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 8(1-2):197-204. · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of insulin stimulation and muscle contractions on the subcellular distribution of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle have been studied on a preparation of single whole fibers from the rat soleus. The fibers were labeled for GLUT4 by a preembedding technique and observed as whole mounts by immunofluorescence microscopy, or after sectioning, by immunogold electron microscopy. The advantage of this preparation for cells of the size of muscle fibers is that it provides global views of the staining from one end of a fiber to the other and from one side to the other through the core of the fiber. In addition, the labeling efficiency is much higher than can be obtained with ultracryosections. In nonstimulated fibers, GLUT4 is excluded from the plasma membrane and T tubules. It is distributed throughout the muscle fibers with approximately 23% associated with large structures including multivesicular endosomes located in the TGN region, and 77% with small tubulovesicular structures. The two stimuli cause translocation of GLUT4 to both plasma membrane and T tubules. Quantitation of the immunogold electron microscopy shows that the effects of insulin and contraction are additive and that each stimulus recruits GLUT4 from both large and small depots. Immunofluorescence double labeling for GLUT4 and transferrin receptor (TfR) shows that the small depots can be further subdivided into TfR-positive and TfR-negative elements. Interestingly, we observe that colocalization of TfR and GLUT4 is increased by insulin and decreased by contractions. These results, supported by subcellular fractionation experiments, suggest that TfR-positive depots are only recruited by contractions. We do not find evidence for stimulation-induced unmasking of resident surface membrane GLUT4 transporters or for dilation of the T tubule system (Wang, W., P.A. Hansen, B.A. Marshall, J.O. Holloszy, and M. Mueckler. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 135:415-430).The Journal of Cell Biology 10/1998; 142(6):1429-46. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Six young men performed five 1-min bicycle exercise bouts to exhaustion. Muscle lactate increased to congruent with 114 mmol x kg(-1) dwt and pH decreased to congruent with 6.6. Mitochondria were prepared from a needle biopsy sample taken from m. vastus lateralis immediately after the last exercise bout. No significant effect of exhaustion on the proton permeability and amount of cytochromes c and aa3 in isolated mitochondria was detected. The activities of the following enzymes and systems were not altered either: citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, succinate + glutamate respiration, malate + glutamate respiration, the respiratory chain, and the reactions involved in ATP synthesis. Thus, the mitochondria did not appear globally altered upon exhaustion. However, the following NAD-linked activities were significantly lowered: pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and fatty acid beta-oxidation. The activities of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and exo-NADH oxidase, enzymes that might catalyze the oxidation of sarcoplasmic NADH, were increased. These changes may be due to the action of reactive oxygen species, protons and Ca2+. Transient opening of the permeability transition pore may also be involved. Some effects may have been reversed during isolation of the mitochondria and the changes in mitochondrial function in situ upon exhaustion may have been more extensive than observed.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 12/2001; 443(2):180-7. · 4.87 Impact Factor