Tolerability, safety and pharmacokinetics of the FGLL peptide, a novel mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule, following intranasal administration in healthy volunteers.
ABSTRACT The FG loop peptide (FGL(L)), a novel mimetic of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), is in clinical development for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical studies in rats, dogs and monkeys have demonstrated exposure in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid after parenteral or intranasal administration of FGL(L), with no systemic toxicity. This article reports on the results of the first administration of FGL(L) in humans.
To determine the tolerability, safety and pharmacokinetics of ascending, single intranasal doses of FGL(L) 25, 100 and 200mg in healthy subjects.
In an 8-day, open-label, phase I study, 24 healthy male volunteers (mean age 42 [range 24-55] years) received single intranasal doses of FGL(L) (25, 100 and 200mg) in accordance with an ascending dose, sequential-cohort design.
All three intranasal doses of FGL(L) were well tolerated and there were no clinical notable abnormalities in ECG recordings, vital signs or laboratory tests. Three subjects (13%) reported five adverse events. A transient (<3 minutes) burning sensation in the nose was reported in two subjects at the 200mg dose level while runny eyes (<2 minutes) were experienced in one subject at 25mg. These events had an onset immediately following intranasal administration, and a relationship to FGL(L) was suspected. One of the latter subjects who had experienced a burning sensation in the nose also experienced dizziness, vomiting and headache with onset >2 days after single-dose administration of FGL(L); no relationship to the study drug was suspected. Quantifiable plasma concentrations of FGL(L) were observed up to 1 hour after intranasal administration of the 100mg dose and up to 4 hours after the 200mg dose (plasma FGL(L) concentrations were undetectable at all timepoints for the 25mg dose). Increasing doses of FGL(L) were associated with higher systemic exposures: mean C(max) 0.52 ng/mL and 1.38 ng/mL (100mg and 200mg, respectively); mean AUC(24) 1.27 ng x h/mL and 4.05 ng x h/mL (100mg and 200mg, respectively).
Intranasal administration of FGL(L) (25, 100 and 200mg) was well tolerated in healthy male volunteers, with no safety concerns and a pharmacokinetic profile that was generally dose related. Further studies are currently being planned to evaluate the effects of FGL(L) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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ABSTRACT: The neural cell adhesion molecule peptide mimetic fibroblast growth loop (FGL) proved to exert neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and anti-inflammatory effects in different in vitro and in vivo experiments. Based on this beneficial efficacy profile, it is currently in clinical development for neurodegenerative diseases and brain insults. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that the peptide might affect development of seizures in a kindling paradigm, as well as associated behavioral and cellular alterations. Both doses tested, 2 and 10 mg/kg FGL, significantly reduced the number of stimulations necessary to induce a generalized seizure. FGL did not exert relevant effects on the behavioral patterns of kindled animals. As expected, kindling increased the hippocampal cell proliferation rate. Whereas the low dose of FGL did not affect this kindling-associated alteration, 10 mg/kg FGL proved to attenuate the expansion of the doublecortin-positive cell population. These data suggest that FGL administration might have an impact on disease-associated alterations in the hippocampal neuronal progenitor cell population. In conclusion, the effects of the peptide mimetic FGL in the kindling model do not confirm a disease-modifying effect with a beneficial impact on the development or course of epilepsy. The results obtained with FGL rather raise some concern regarding a putative effect, which might promote the formation of a hyperexcitable network. Future studies are required to further assess the risks in models with development of spontaneous seizures.ACS Chemical Neuroscience 01/2014; 5(3). DOI:10.1021/cn400153g · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), also known as basic FGF, is a multi-functional growth factor. One of the 22-member FGF family, it signals through receptor tyrosine kinases encoding FGFR1-4. FGF2 activates FGFRs in cooperation with heparin or heparin sulfate proteoglycan to induce its pleiotropic effects in different tissues and organs, which include potent angiogenic effects and important roles in the differentiation and function of the central nervous system (CNS). FGF2 is crucial to development of the CNS, which explains its importance in adult neurogenesis. During development, high levels of FGF2 are detected from neurulation onwards. Moreover, developmental expression of FGF2 and its receptors is temporally and spatially regulated, concurring with development of specific brain regions including the hippocampus and substantia nigra pars compacta. In adult neurogenesis, FGF2 has been implicated based on its expression and regulation of neural stem and progenitor cells in the neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. FGFR1 signaling also modulates inflammatory signaling through the surface glycoprotein CD200, which regulates microglial activation. Because of its importance in adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation, manipulation of FGF2/FGFR1 signaling has been a focus of therapeutic development for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury. Novel strategies include intranasal administration of FGF2, administration of an NCAM-derived FGFR1 agonist, and chitosan-based nanoparticles for the delivery of FGF2 in pre-clinical animal models. In this review, we highlight current research towards therapeutic interventions targeting FGF2/FGFR1 in neurodegenerative disorders.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 09/2013; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11481-013-9501-5 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been studied extensively. But it is only in recent times that interest in this molecule has shifted to conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Schizophrenia, focusing on its role in neurodegeneration and abnormal neurodevelopment. NCAM is important in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and synaptic plasticity. Reduced as well as increased levels in NCAM have been linked to pathology in the brain suggesting that a shift in the equilibrium may be the key. Hence, increasing our understanding of the role of NCAM in health and disease should clear some of the ambiguity surrounding the molecule and even lead to newer potential therapeutic targets. This review consolidates our current understanding of NCAM, focusing on the consequences of dysregulation, its role in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, and the future of NCAM plus potential options for therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.01/2013; 2(1):13–20. DOI:10.1016/j.msard.2012.08.002