The clinical pharmacokinetics of escitalopram.
ABSTRACT Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of the racemic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant citalopram. Clinical studies have shown that escitalopram is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Following oral administration, escitalopram is rapidly absorbed and reaches maximum plasma concentrations in approximately 3-4 hours after either single- or multiple-dose administration. The absorption of escitalopram is not affected by food. The elimination half-life of escitalopram is about 27-33 hours and is consistent with once-daily administration. Steady-state concentrations are achieved within 7-10 days of administration. Escitalopram has low protein binding (56%) and is not likely to cause interactions with highly protein-bound drugs. It is widely distributed throughout tissues, with an apparent volume of distribution during the terminal phase after oral administration (V(z)/F) of about 1100L. Unmetabolised escitalopram is the major compound in plasma. S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT), the principal metabolite, is present at approximately one-third the level of escitalopram; however, S-DCT is a weak inhibitor of serotonin reuptake and does not contribute appreciably to the therapeutic activity of escitalopram. The didemethyl metabolite of escitalopram (S-DDCT) is typically present at or below quantifiable concentrations. Escitalopram and S-DCT exhibit linear and dose-proportional pharmacokinetics following single or multiple doses in the 10-30 mg/day dose range. Adolescents, elderly individuals and patients with hepatic impairment do not have clinically relevant differences in pharmacokinetics compared with healthy young adults, implying that adjustment of the dosage is not necessary in these patient groups. Escitalopram is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. However, ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, does not affect the pharmacokinetics of escitalopram. Coadministration of escitalopram 20mg following steady-state administration of cimetidine or omeprazole led to a 72% and 51% increase, respectively, in escitalopram exposure compared with administration alone. These changes were not considered clinically relevant. In vitro studies have shown that escitalopram has negligible inhibitory effects on CYP isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein, suggesting that escitalopram is unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions. The favourable pharmacokinetic profile of escitalopram suggests clinical utility in a broad range of patients.
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ABSTRACT: The kinetics of citalopram were studied in a group of volunteers after oral (8 subjects) and intravenous (4 subjects) single doses and repeated oral administration (7 subjects). Inter- and intraindividual variation was limited and linearity of kinetics indicated. Systemic and apparent oral clearance estimates (mean 0.42 l plasma/min.) were similar, indicating roughly complete systemic availability. The presence of unchanged drug in urine, corresponding to 1/7 of the dose, suggests elimination by renal as well as hepatic processes. The data from the intravenous test revealed two compartment kinetics; the total volume of distribution was estimated to about 1150 l and that of the central compartment to 175 l. Upon repeated administration steady-state conditions were generally achieved after one week in agreement with the 33 hrs half-life of elimination. Citalopram peak concentrations were reached within 2-4 hours after the daily dose and maximally two-fold variation was recorded in the 24 hrs dose interval. The levels of a main pharmacodynamically active metabolite were roughly half as high as the drug levels.Acta pharmacologica et toxicologica 02/1981; 48(1):53-60.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of co-administration of cimetidine or omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of escitalopram. Two randomized placebo-controlled crossover studies were carried out. Sixteen healthy subjects were administered placebo, or cimetidine (400 mg twice daily) for 5 days (study 1) or omeprazole (30 mg once daily) for 6 days (study 2). On day 4 (study 1) or day 5 (study 2), a single dose of escitalopram (20 mg) was administered. Blood samples were taken at predetermined times for the measurement of serum concentrations of escitalopram and its demethylated metabolite (S-DCT). Treatment-emergent adverse events were also monitored. Co-administration with cimetidine caused a moderate increase in the systemic exposure [AUC0, infinity] to escitalopram (geometric mean ratio = 1.72, [95% CI 1.34, 2.21]) and a small increase in t(1/2) from 23.7 to 29.0 h (5.24 h [3.75, 6.70]). Co-administration with omeprazole also resulted in a moderate increase in the escitalopram AUC(0, infinity) (1.51 [1.39, 1.64]) and a small increase in t(1/2) from 26.5 to 34.8 h (8.3 h [6.44, 10.2]). There was no significant change in S-DCT AUC0, infinity after co-administration of either cimetidine or omeprazole. Co-administration of cimetidine or omeprazole had no effect on the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events. In view of the good tolerability of escitalopram, the pharmacokinetic changes observed on co-administration with cimetidine or omeprazole are unlikely to be of clinical concern.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2005; 60(3):287-90. · 3.69 Impact Factor
Article: Escitalopram.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Escitalopram oxalate (S-citalopram, Lexapro), a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressant which is the S-enantiomer of citalopram, is in clinical development worldwide for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the S-isomer and that escitalopram binds with high affinity to the human serotonin transporter. Conversely, R-citalopram is approximately 30-fold less potent than escitalopram at this transporter. Escitalopram has linear pharmacokinetics, so that plasma levels increase proportionately and predictably with increased doses and its half-life of 27 - 32 h is consistent with once-daily dosing. In addition, escitalopram has negligible effects on cytochrome P450 drug-metabolising enzymes in vitro, suggesting a low potential for drug-drug interactions. The efficacy of escitalopram in patients with major depressive disorder has been demonstrated in multiple short-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials, three of which included citalopram as an active control, as well as in a 36-week study evaluating efficacy in the prevention of depression relapse. In these studies, escitalopram was shown to have robust efficacy in the treatment of depression and associated symptoms of anxiety relative to placebo. Efficacy has also been shown in treating generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. Results also suggest that, at comparable doses, escitalopram demonstrates clinically relevant and statistically significant superiority to placebo treatment earlier than citalopram. Analysis of the safety database shows a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events, and there was no statistically significant difference between escitalopram 10 mg/day and placebo in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment early because of adverse events. The most common adverse events associated with escitalopram which occurred at a rate greater than placebo include nausea, insomnia, ejaculation disorder, diarrhoea, dry mouth and somnolence. Only nausea occurred in > 10% of escitalopram-treated patients.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 10/2002; 11(10):1477-86. · 5.43 Impact Factor