Unique Pathology in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rapid Progressor Macaques Is Consistent with a Pathogenesis Distinct from That of Classical AIDS

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 07/2007; 81(11):5594-606. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00202-07
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of humans result in variable but generally fatal disease outcomes. Most SIV-infected macaques progress to AIDS over a period of 1 to 3 years, in the face of robust SIV-specific immune responses (conventional progressors [CP]). A small number of SIV-inoculated macaques mount transient immune responses and progress rapidly to AIDS (rapid progressors [RP]). We speculated that the underlying pathogenic mechanisms may differ between RP and CP macaques. We compared the pathological lesions, virus loads, and distribution of virus and target cells in SIVsmE660- or SIVsmE543-infected RP and CP rhesus macaques at terminal disease. RP macaques developed a wasting syndrome characterized by severe SIV enteropathy in the absence of opportunistic infections. In contrast, opportunistic infections were commonly observed in CP macaques. RP and CP macaques showed distinct patterns of CD4(+) T-cell depletion, with a selective loss of memory cells in RP macaques and a generalized (naive and memory) CD4 depletion in CP macaques. In situ hybridization demonstrated higher levels of virus expression in lymphoid tissues (P < 0.001) of RP macaques and a broader distribution to include many nonlymphoid tissues. Finally, SIV was preferentially expressed in macrophages in RP macaques whereas the primary target cells in CP macaques were T lymphocytes at end stage disease. These data suggest distinct pathogenic mechanisms leading to the deaths of these two groups of animals, with CP macaques being more representative of HIV-induced AIDS in humans.

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    • "Also, in SHIV-infected macaques, after depletion of CD4+ T cells, macrophages were identified as the virus producing cells (Igarashi et al., 2001). In macaques inoculated with rapid-progressing SIVsmm, the majority of SIV-positive cells in the lymph nodes and gastrointestinal tract were macrophages (Brown et al., 2007). As already reported, macrophages have the potential to produce viruses at the end stage of infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the pathogenicity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), it is important to clarify where, when and how the virus replicates in the body of infected individuals. To identify the major virus replication site at the end stage of SHIV infection, we investigated the systemic tissues of SHIV-infected monkeys that developed AIDS-like disease. We quantified proviral DNA, and compared the mutation patterns of the viruses in various systemic tissues and in peripheral blood through phylogenetic analysis of the full genome sequence. We found that the amounts of proviral DNA detected in internal tissues were higher than those in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In the sequence and phylogenetic tree analyses, the mutation patterns of the viruses in each tissue were generally different. However, the mutation pattern of the viruses in the jejunum and mesenteric lymph node were most similar to that of plasma viral RNA among the tissues examined in all three monkeys. In two of the three monkeys, which were euthanized earlier, viruses in the jejunum and mesenteric lymph node occupied the root position of the phylogenetic tree. Furthermore, in these tissues, more than 50% of SHIV-expressing cells were identified as macrophages based on co-expression of CD68. These results suggest that macrophages of the small intestine and/or mesenteric lymph node are the major virus production site at the end stage of SHIV infection of macaques.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 07/2013; 4:204. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00204 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Enhanced infection of primary macrophages was seen in the RP macaques at end-stage disease irrespective of coreceptor switch, indicative of a strong selective pressure to replicate in cells with lower CD4 cell-surface expression levels over the infection course. Adaptation to macrophages has also be observed in SIV-infected RP macaques [77], and isolates from late in disease of HIV-1 infected individuals have been reported to be more macrophage-tropic compared to those from early in infection [78-80], suggestive of similar selection pressure in humans and rhesus monkeys. Presumably, as discussed above, ongoing virus replication in both hosts leads to loss in target cells (e.g., memory T cells) with high receptor expression levels, putting pressure on the virus to change so that it can use CD4 more efficiently to infect alternate CCR5+ cells such as macrophages that express low amounts of receptor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background We previously reported that adoption of an “open” envelope glycoprotein (Env) to expose the CD4 binding site for efficient receptor binding and infection of cell targets such as macrophages that express low levels of the receptor represents an early event in the process of coreceptor switch in two rapidly progressing (RP) R5 SHIVSF162P3N-infected rhesus macaques, releasing or reducing Env structural constraints that have been suggested to limit the pathways available for a change in coreceptor preference. Here we extended these studies to two additional RP monkeys with coreceptor switch and three without to confirm and identify additional factors that facilitated the process of phenotypic conversion. Results We found that regardless of coreceptor switching, R5 viruses in SHIVSF162P3N-infected RP macaques evolved over time to infect macrophages more efficiently; this was accompanied by increased sCD4 sensitivity, with structural changes in the CD4 binding site, the V3 loop and/or the fusion domain of their Envs that are suggestive of better CD4 contact, CCR5 usage and/or virus fusion. However, sCD4-sensitive variants with improved CD4 binding were observed only in RPs with coreceptor switch. Furthermore, cumulative viral load was higher in RPs with than in those without phenotypic switch, with the latter maintaining a longer period of seroconversion. Conclusions Our data suggest that the increased virus replication in the RPs with R5-to-X4 conversion increased the rate of virus evolution and reduction in the availability of target cells with optimal CD4 expression heightened the competition for binding to the receptor. In the absence of immunological restrictions, variants that adopt an “open” Env to expose the CD4 binding site for better CD4 use are selected, allowing structural changes that confer CXCR4-use to be manifested. Viral load, change in target cell population during the course of infection and host immune response therefore are interdependent variables that influence R5 virus evolution and coreceptor switch in SHIVSF162P3N-infected rhesus macaques. Because an "open" Env conformation also renders the virus more susceptible to antibody neutralization, our findings help to explain the infrequent and late appearance of X4 virus in HIV-1 infection when the immune system deteriorates.
    Retrovirology 12/2012; 9(1):106. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-9-106 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "The total surface area counted was determined using the Cast Grid software (Olympus, France). Characterization of infected cells was performed using either radioactive or non radioactive ISH combined with immunostaining for cell markers, as described before [16], [30]. Briefly, for radioactive ISH method, the sections were incubated either with a mouse monoclonal antibody against human myeloid cell antigen CD68 (clone KP1, Dako, 1.57 µg/ml) before the ISH or with a mouse monoclonal antibody against human CD3 antigen (F7.2.38, Dako, 6.75 µg/ml) after the ISH. "
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    ABSTRACT: The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2-4 weeks) initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37348. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037348 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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