Article

Aliskiren, a novel oral renin inhibitor, provides dose-dependent efficacy and placebo-like tolerability in Japanese patients with hypertension.

Department of Cardiology, Nihon University Surugadai Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Hypertension Research (Impact Factor: 2.94). 01/2007; 29(12):997-1005. DOI: 10.1291/hypres.29.997
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aliskiren is a novel orally active renin inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension. This study evaluated the antihypertensive efficacy, safety and tolerability of aliskiren in Japanese patients with hypertension. Forty hundred and fifty-five Japanese men and women with a mean sitting diastolic blood pressure of 95-110 mmHg were randomized to receive once-daily double-blind treatment for 8 weeks with aliskiren 75, 150 or 300 mg or placebo. Aliskiren produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0005 vs. placebo for each dose) and mean sitting systolic blood pressure (p<0.001 vs. placebo for each dose). The placebo-corrected reductions in mean sitting systolic/diastolic blood pressure were 5.7/4.0, 5.9/4.5 and 11.2/7.5 mmHg in the aliskiren 75, 150 and 300 mg groups, respectively. After 8 weeks' treatment, 27.8%, 47.8%, 48.2% and 63.7% of patients in the placebo and aliskiren 75, 150 and 300 mg groups, respectively, achieved a successful treatment response (diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg and/or reduced by > or =10 mmHg from baseline; p<0.005 vs. placebo for each dose). Aliskiren treatment was well tolerated, with the incidence of adverse events reported in the active treatment groups (53-55%) being similar to that in the placebo group (50%). This study, which is the first to assess the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of aliskiren in Japanese patients with hypertension, demonstrates that the once-daily oral renin inhibitor aliskiren provides significant, dose-dependent reductions in blood pressure with placebo-like tolerability.

0 Followers
 · 
76 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials to quantify the dose-related systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering efficacy of renin inhibitors vs placebo in the treatment of adults with primary hypertension. Databases searched were Medline (1966-March 2008), EMBASE (1988-March 2008) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Six trials in 3694 patients met the inclusion criteria. All examined aliskiren, the only renin inhibitor licensed for marketing in Canada and the United States. Aliskiren caused a dose-related SBP/DBP lowering effect compared to placebo: weighted mean difference with 95% CI: aliskiren 75 mg, -2.9 (-4.6, -1.3)/-2.3 (-3.3, -1.3) mm Hg; aliskiren 150 mg, -5.5 (-6.5, -4.4)/-3.0 (-3.7, -2.3) mm Hg; aliskiren 300 mg, -8.7 (-9.7,-7.6)/-5.0 (-5.6, -4.3) and aliskiren 600 mg, -11.4 (-13.5, -9.2)/-6.6 (-7.9, -5.2) mm Hg. Aliskiren 300 mg significantly lowered both SBP -3.0 (-4.0, -2.0) and DBP -1.7 (-2.3, -1.0) as compared to aliskiren 150 mg. Aliskiren has no effect on blood pressure variability. No data were available to assess the effect of aliskiren on heart rate or pulse pressure. This review found weak evidence that during 4- to 8-week use, aliskiren did not increase withdrawals due to adverse effects as compared to placebo. We concluded that aliskiren has a dose-related blood pressure lowering effect better than placebo and magnitude of effect is similar to that determined for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.
    Journal of human hypertension 02/2009; 23(8):495-502. DOI:10.1038/jhh.2008.162 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is common and costly. Over the past decade, new antihypertensive therapies have been developed, several have lost patent protection and additional evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these agents has accrued. To examine trends in the use of antihypertensive therapies in the United States between 1997 and 2012. We used nationally representative audit data from the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index to examine the ambulatory pharmacologic treatment of hypertension. Our primary unit of analysis was a visit where hypertension was a reported diagnosis and treated with a pharmacotherapy (treatment visit). We restricted analyses to the use of six therapeutic classes of antihypertensive medications among individuals 18 years or older. Annual hypertension treatment visits increased from 56.9 million treatment visits (95% confidence intervals [CI], 53.9-59.8) in 1997 to 83.3 million visits (CI 79.2-87.3) in 2008, then declined steadily to 70.9 million visits (CI 66.7-75.0) by 2012. Angiotensin receptor blocker utilization increased substantially from 3% of treatment visits in 1997 to 18% by 2012, whereas calcium channel blocker use decreased from 27% to 18% of visits. Rates of diuretic and beta-blocker use remained stable and represented 24%-30% and 14-16% of visits, respectively. Use of direct renin inhibitor accounted for fewer than 2% of annual visits. The proportion of visits treated using fixed-dose combination therapies increased from 28% to 37% of visits. Several important changes have occurred in the landscape of antihypertensive treatment in the United States during the past decade. Despite their novel mechanism of action, the adoption rate of direct renin inhibitors remains low.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119292. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119292 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are common comorbidities, thus many patients receiving antihypertensive medication require concomitant therapy with hypoglycemic or lipid-lowering drugs. The aim of these three studies was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension, co-administered with the glucose-lowering agents metformin or pioglitazone or the lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate in healthy volunteers. In three open-label, multiple-dose studies, healthy volunteers (ages 18 to 45 years) received once-daily treatment with either metformin 1000 mg (n = 22), pioglitazone 45 mg (n = 30) or fenofibrate 200 mg (n = 21) and aliskiren 300 mg, administered alone or co-administered in a two-period study design. Blood samples were taken frequently on the last day of each treatment period to determine plasma drug concentrations. Co-administration of aliskiren with metformin decreased aliskiren area under the plasma concentration- time curve during the dose interval (AUC(tau)) by 27% (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 0.73; 90% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 0.84) and maximum observed plasma concentration (C(max)) by 29% (GMR 0.71; 90% CI 0.56, 0.89) but these changes were not considered clinically relevant. Co-administration of aliskiren with fenofibrate had no effect on aliskiren AUC (GMR 1.05; 90% CI 0.96, 1.16) or C(max) (GMR 1.05; 90% CI 0.80, 1.38); similarly, co-administration of aliskiren with pioglitazone had no effect on aliskiren AUC(tau) (GMR 1.05; 90% CI 0.98, 1.13) or C(max) (GMR 1.01; 90% CI 0.84, 1.20). All other AUC and C(max) GMRs for aliskiren, metformin, pioglitazone, ketopioglitazone, hydroxypioglita-zone and fenofibrate were close to unity and the 90% CI were contained within the bioequivalence range of 0.80 to 1.25. Co-administration of aliskiren with metformin, pioglitazone or fenofibrate had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in healthy volunteers. These findings indicate that aliskiren can be co-administered with metformin, pioglitazone or fenofibrate without the need for dose adjustment.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 09/2008; 24(8):2313-26. DOI:10.1185/03007990802259354 · 2.37 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from