Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid exposure from early life does not affect atopy and asthma at age 5 years
ABSTRACT The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in children with a family history of asthma in whom omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and restriction of dietary omega-6 fatty acids did not prevent asthma, eczema, or atopy at age 5 years.
We sought to examine the relation of all measures of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with outcomes at age 5 years in the whole birth cohort, regardless of randomization group.
Plasma fatty acids were measured at 18 months, 3 years, and 5 years. Compliance with the fatty acid supplements was estimated every 6 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 18 months by means of weighed-food record and at 3 years by means of food-frequency questionnaire. At age 5 years, 516 children were examined for wheeze and eczema (questionnaire) and atopy (skin prick tests, n = 488). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between exposures and outcomes.
Plasma levels of omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids were not associated with wheeze, eczema, or atopy at age 5 years (P = .11-.96). Overall, fatty acid exposure, measured as plasma levels, dietary intake, and compliance with supplements, was not associated with any respiratory or allergic outcomes (P = .35-.59).
This observational analysis of the cohort, using the full range of observed variation in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid exposure, supports the negative findings of the randomized controlled trial.
Modification of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in early childhood is not helpful in preventing atopy and asthma.
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ABSTRACT: Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Allergology International 01/2015; 64(1):27-34. DOI:10.1016/j.alit.2014.08.003
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ABSTRACT: Background Many studies have investigated individual nutrients or foods as risk factors for allergic disease, but few have studied dietary patterns. We aimed to use principal component analysis (PCA) to determine dietary patterns in school age children and examine associations between these dietary patterns and wheeze, asthma and sensitization. Methods Participants in a population-based birth cohort attended review clinics at ages 8 and 11yr. A validated questionnaire was interviewer-administered to collect information on parentally reported symptoms and doctor-diagnosed asthma. Atopic sensitization was ascertained by skin-prick tests. Current asthma was defined as doctor-diagnosed asthma and wheezing in the previous 12months. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was completed at age 8yr, and PCA was used to determine dietary patterns. ResultsPrincipal component analysis identified three dietary components, which based on their characteristics we termed as Traditional (mixed meat, fish, fruit and vegetables), Western (predominantly high fat content, processed foods) and Other (predominantly grains and nuts) dietary patterns. High adherence to the Western diet pattern was significantly associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma and current asthma at age 8yr [aOR (95% CI): 2.19 (1.20-4.01), p=0.01; 2.59 (1.15-5.81), p=0.02; respectively]. A similar association was found for current asthma at age 11yr [aOR (95% CI): 2.20 (1.07-4.51), p=0.03]. There was no evidence of an association between dietary patterns and current wheeze and allergic sensitization at either age 8 or 11yr. Conclusion School age children adhering strongly to a Western diet, high in fat and processed foods, had a higher risk of current asthma and doctor-diagnosed asthma.Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 09/2014; 25(6). DOI:10.1111/pai.12276 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood asthma prevalence worldwide has been increasing markedly over several decades. Various theories have been proposed to account for this alarming trend. The disease has a broad spectrum of potential determinants ranging from genetics to lifestyle and environmental factors. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that several important lifestyle and environmental factors including obesity, urban living, dietary patterns such as food low in antioxidants and fast food, non-breastfeeding, gut flora imbalance, cigarette smoking, air pollution, and viral infection are associated with asthma exacerbations in children. However, only environmental tobacco smoke has been associated with the development of asthma. Despite epidemiological studies indicating that many other factors are probably associated with the development of asthma, the relationships are not considered causal due to the inadequate evidence and inconsistent results from recent studies. This may highlight that sufficient data and exact mechanisms of causality are still in need of further study.Paediatric respiratory reviews 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.prrv.2014.07.004 · 2.22 Impact Factor