Management of dental patients taking common hemostasis-altering

Salivary Gland Clinic and Residency Program, The Hebrew University, Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology (Impact Factor: 1.46). 04/2007; 103 Suppl(Suppl):S45.e1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.11.011
Source: PubMed


Millions of patients worldwide are taking medications that alter hemostasis and decrease the risk for thromboembolic events. This systematic review is intended to provide recommendations regarding optimal management of such patients undergoing invasive dental procedures. The primary focus of this report is on warfarin therapy, although issues related to heparin and aspirin are briefly discussed because of the frequency with which they are encountered in dental practice.
The review of literature and development of recommendations was based on the Reference Manual for Management Recommendations for the World Workshop in Oral Medicine IV (WWOM IV). A total of 64 publications were identified for initial review. From these publications, the following types of articles were critically analyzed using WWOM standard forms: randomized controlled trials (RCT), non-RCT studies that assess effects of interventions, and studies that assess modifiable risk factors. Development of recommendations was based on the findings of these reviews as well as expert opinion.
The following evidence-based recommendations were developed: (1) For patients within the therapeutic range of International Normalized Ratio (INR) below or equal to 3.5, warfarin therapy need not be modified or discontinued for simple dental extractions. Nevertheless, the clinician's judgment, experience, training, and accessibility to appropriate bleeding management strategies are all important components in any treatment decision. Patients with INR greater than 3.5 should be referred to their physician for consideration for possible dose adjustment for significantly invasive procedures. (2) A 2-day regimen of postoperative 4.8% tranexamic acid mouthwash is beneficial after oral surgical procedures in patients on warfarin. (3) It is not necessary to interrupt low-dose aspirin therapy (100 mg/day or less) for simple dental extractions.
For most patients undergoing simple single dental extractions, the morbidity of potential thromboembolic events if anticoagulant therapy is discontinued clearly outweighs the risk of prolonged bleeding if anticoagulant therapy is continued.

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    • "Warfarin, which acts by antagonizing the effect of vitamin K, is one of the most commonly used oral anticoagulants. The drug can be absorbed completely and reaches its peak in 1 hour after ingestion.1 Albumin is bound to circulating warfarin, and the half-life of warfarin is approximately 36 hours.2 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Warfarin is one of the most common oral anticoagulants used to prevent thromboembolic episodes. The benefits of discontinuation of this drug before simple surgical procedures are not clear and this approach could be associated with complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of bleeding in a series of 35 patients (in cases where the international normalized ratio [INR] is less than 4) following simple tooth extraction without modification of the warfarin dose given to patients. Methods Thirty-five patients taking warfarin who had been referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, for dental extractions were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included patients with an INR of ≥4 or with a history of liver disease or coagulopathies. No alteration was made in warfarin dose, and the CoaguChek System was used to identify the INR on the same day of dental extraction. Bleeding from the extraction site was evaluated and recorded immediately after extraction until the second day. Results A total of 35 patients (16 women and 19 men) aged between 38 and 57 years (mean =48.7) were included in the present study. All patients underwent simple one-tooth extraction while undergoing warfarin treatment. Oozing, considered mild bleeding and which did not need intervention was seen in 88.6% of patients. Moderate bleeding occurred in 11.4% of all cases. The INR of the patients ranged from 2.00 to 3.50, with 77.2% of patients having INR between 2.0 and 2.5 on the day of extraction. No severe bleeding which needed hospital management was encountered after any of the extractions. The patients who suffered moderate bleeding were returned to the clinic where they received local treatment measures to control bleeding. Moderate bleeding occurred only in four patients, where three had INR between 3.1 and 3.5, and one with INR less than 3. Conclusion In the present study, we have shown that simple tooth extraction in patients on warfarin treatment can be performed safely without high risk of bleeding, providing that the INR is equal or less than 3.5 on the day of extraction. A close follow-up and monitoring of patients taking warfarin is mandatory after dental extraction.
    Clinical 08/2014; 6:65-9. DOI:10.2147/CCIDE.S68641
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    • "They further stated that the benefit of continued aspirin therapy to prevent thromboembolic event clearly outweighs the risk of increased bleeding episode. This is a Class-I recommendation based on Level of Evidence B [68]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac patients on aspirin therapy may require extractions for their diseased teeth. It is a common practice among physicians and treating surgeons to stop aspirin prior to tooth extraction because of fear of bleeding complications. This practice often predisposes the patient to adverse thromboembolic events. This practice is based on theoretical risk of bleeding and on isolated case reports of excessive bleeding with aspirin therapy. The current consensus and recommendations are in favor of continuing aspirin therapy during simple tooth extraction as the bleeding complication incidence is very less and if it occurs can be controlled efficiently with local hemostasis measures.
    04/2014; 2014(3):463684. DOI:10.1155/2014/463684
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    • "Because of their potential bleeding effect, antiplatelet drugs are often interrupted during the perioperative period, without adequately evaluating the increased thrombotic risk of this decision. More recent publications suggest that the increase in bleeding risk induced by antiplatelet drugs has been exaggerated, while at the same time the increased thrombotic risk associated with treatment interruption has been underestimated (28). Consequently, although each invasive dental procedure implies a risk of oral bleeding, it is not advisable to interrupt antiplatelet therapy, since the increased risk of thromboembolism could outweigh the risk of bleeding (26-28). "
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate hemostasis is crucial for the success of invasive dental treatment, since bleeding problems can give rise to complications associated with important morbidity-mortality. The dental treatment of patients who tend to an increased risk of bleeding due to the use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drugs raises a challenge in the daily practice of dental professionals. Adequate knowledge of the mechanisms underlying hemostasis, and the optimized management of such patients, are therefore very important issues. A study is made of the anticoagulant / antiplatelet drugs currently available on the market, with evaluation of the risks and benefits of suspending such drugs prior to invasive dental treatment. In addition, a review is made of the current management protocols used in these patients. A literature search was made in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, covering all studies published in the last 5 years in English and Spanish. Studies conducted in humans and with scientific evidence levels 1 and 2 (metaanalyses, systematic reviews, randomized phase 1 and 2 trials, cohort studies and case-control studies) were considered. The keywords used for the search were: tooth extraction, oral surgery, hemostasis, platelet aggregation inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, warfarin, acenocoumarol. Many management protocols have been developed, though in all cases a full clinical history is required, together with complementary hemostatic tests to minimize any risks derived from dental treatment. Many authors consider that patient medication indicated for the treatment of background disease should not be altered or suspended unless so indicated by the prescribing physician. Local hemostatic measures have been shown to suffice for controlling possible bleeding problems resulting from dental treatment. Key words:Tooth extraction, oral surgery, hemostasis, platelet aggregation inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, warfarin, acenocoumarol.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry 04/2014; 6(2):e155-e161. DOI:10.4317/jced.51215
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