Aging and temporal patterns of inhibition of return.

Department of Psychology, Center for Visual Neuroscience, North Dakota State University, 115 Minard Hall, Fargo, North Dakota 58105, USA.
The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.85). 04/2007; 62(2):P71-7. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/62.2.P71
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inhibition of return (IOR), an inhibitory component of spatial attention that is thought to bias visual search toward novel locations, is considered relatively well preserved with normal aging. We conducted two experiments to assess age-related changes in the temporal pattern of IOR. Inhibitory effects, which were strongly reflected in the performance of both younger adults (ages 18-34 years) and older adults (ages 60-79 years), diminished over a period of 5 s. The time point at which IOR began to diminish was delayed by approximately 1 s for older adults compared with younger adults; this pattern was observed on both a target detection task (Experiment 1) and a color discrimination task (Experiment 2). The finding that timing characteristics of IOR are altered by normal aging has potential implications for the manner in which inhibition aids search performance.

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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of return (IOR) as an indicator of attentional control is characterized by an eccentricity effect, that is, the more peripheral visual field shows a stronger IOR magnitude relative to the perifoveal visual field. However, it could be argued that this eccentricity effect may not be an attention effect, but due to cortical magnification. To test this possibility, we examined this eccentricity effect in two conditions: the same-size condition in which identical stimuli were used at different eccentricities, and the size-scaling condition in which stimuli were scaled according to the cortical magnification factor (M-scaling), thus stimuli being larger at the more peripheral locations. The results showed that the magnitude of IOR was significantly stronger in the peripheral relative to the perifoveal visual field, and this eccentricity effect was independent of the manipulation of stimulus size (same-size or size-scaling). These results suggest a robust eccentricity effect of IOR which cannot be eliminated by M-scaling. Underlying neural mechanisms of the eccentricity effect of IOR are discussed with respect to both cortical and subcortical structures mediating attentional control in the perifoveal and peripheral visual field.
    Experimental Psychology 07/2013; · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a delayed responding to targets appeared at previously cued location relative to an uncued novel location. In a recent study, Bao and Pöppel reported a functional dissociation of inhibitory processing in the visual field with much stronger IOR magnitude in the far periphery relative to the perifoveal visual field up to 15° eccentricity. The present study aimed to examine whether this effect is sensitive to participant experience or practice. Consistent with previous findings, our data demonstrated a larger IOR magnitude at 21° relative to 7° stimulus eccentricity. More importantly, no practice-related IOR magnitude changes were observed for both perifoveal and peripheral stimuli, although response times did decrease significantly with practice. These results suggest that the eccentricity effect of IOR is a robust phenomenon which is resistant to practice.
    Neuroscience Letters 06/2011; 500(1):47-51. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying inhibition of return (IOR) are still under debate. Besides the probable implication of several processes in its generation, a reason for this uncertainty may be related to experimental factors affecting the presence, time course, and magnitude of IOR. Two of them may be related to the arrangement of the stimuli in the visual field that could cause possible interactions between IOR and response conflict effects (horizontal arrangements) or between IOR and perceptual asymmetries (vertical arrangement). The purpose of the present study was to explore location and color cueing effects with a vertical arrangement of stimuli, free of S-R compatibility effects. To examine this possibility, a cue-back task with stimuli in the vertical meridian was employed. Targets could randomly and equiprobably appear at cued or uncued locations, or with cued or uncued color. These cueing effects were analyzed on behavior and ERPs separately for upper and lower visual fields (UVF and LVF). Under location cueing, behavioral responses were slower (spatial IOR) in both hemifields. In the ERPs, N1 reductions were observed in both visual fields although with different modulations in their latency and scalp distribution. In the P3 rising beginning, posterior negative deflections in the LVF (Nd) and anterior positive deflections (Pd) in the UVF were observed. Under color cueing, P3 amplitude was reduced in the UVF accompanied by no behavioral effects. These results suggest that different patterns of brain activation can be obtained in upper and lower visual fields under spatial- and non spatial cueing conditions.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor

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