Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 2.2). 05/2007; 27(4):595-9. DOI: 10.1592/phco.27.4.595
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and most patients with the disease have type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of media attention after a study was published in 2003. Although the efficacy of cinnamon in patients with diabetes has not been established, many patients seek other therapies and supplement their prescribed pharmacologic therapy with cinnamon. We conducted a literature search, limited to English-language human studies, using MEDLINE (1966-August 2006), EMBASE (1980-August 2006), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2006), and Iowa Drug Information Service (1966-August 2006). References from articles and clinical trials were reviewed for additional sources; no abstracts were reviewed. We found two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trials and one prospective, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes; a total of 164 patients were involved in these trials. Two of the studies reported modest improvements in lowering blood glucose levels with cinnamon supplementation in small patient samples. One trial showed no significant difference between cinnamon and placebo in lowering blood glucose levels. Overall, cinnamon was well tolerated. These data suggest that cinnamon has a possible modest effect in lowering plasma glucose levels in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. However, clinicians are strongly urged to refrain from recommending cinnamon supplementation in place of the proven standard of care, which includes lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, and insulin therapy.

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    • "When used in patients with diabetes or taking antidiabetic medications as, based on invitro and animal evidence, cinnamon has demonstrated lowering of blood glucose levels and acted as an insulin mimetic [6, 18, 29, 41, 56, 95, 121, 185, 200, 208, 223, 225, 228, 229, 252, 271, 309, 344, 367, 390–392, 405, 460, 461, 474, 481, 558]. Human data, however, have demonstrated conflicting results [13] [22] [33] [121] [242] [378] [476] [510]. When used in patients with autoimmune diseases or those who use immunosuppressants, as cinnamon has been found to have immunomodulatory effects in animal and in-vitro studies [244, 342, 343, 444]. "
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    ABSTRACT: An evidence-based systematic review of cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.), including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing, by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration is discussed in this monograph.
    Journal of Dietary Supplements 12/2011; 8(4):378-454. DOI:10.3109/19390211.2011.627783
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    • "Studies related to a-glucosidase inhibition has involved mostly on the use of plant extracts and some traditional foods (Fujita et al., 2003; Djomeni et al., 2006). The C. verum has received major attention due to its high inhibitory activity of a-glucosidase (Ranilla et al., 2010) which helps to lower blood glucose concentrations in patients with diabetes type2 (Pham et al., 2007) (Fig. 6). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of Cinnamomum verum on the changes in antioxidant activities, proteolysis, total phenolic content and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase of bioyogurts prepared from cow- and camel-milks during 21 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The result shows that pH of cow-milk bioyogurt (cow-MY) decreased more than camel-milk bioyogurt (camel-MY) whereas, total titratable acidity increased to similar extent in both types of bioyogurts. The addition of C. verum in both type of bioyogurts enhanced the total phenolic content during the entire storage period. The antioxidant capacity of C. verum-bioyogurts was higher than plain-bioyogurts. Proteolysis was higher in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The inhibition of α-amylase in fresh bioyogurts was stronger in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The reverse was true for α-glucosidase. Conclusively, C. verum can enhance bioyogurt functional properties with potential therapeutic values for the diabetics.
    06/2011; 10(2):101-107. DOI:10.1016/j.jssas.2011.04.005
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    • "Although there is evidence to support the use of each ingredient in this supplement, there is also conflicting evidence. Some researchers have reported that cinnamon is ineffective at reducing blood glucose levels [22], while others report that cinnamon is effective at reducing blood glucose levels [23]. It is important for future studies to be mechanism-based in order to better elucidate the bioactivity and possible synergies of the ingredients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated blood glucose is a major component in metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes, sometimes leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II). Additionally, it may lead to adipose deposits when left elevated for long periods. The epidemiology of DM II clearly shows that uncontrolled blood glucose levels leads to many adverse conditions including heart disease, retinal damage, renal failure, erectile dysfunction, and other significant medical conditions. Here we conducted a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group- clinical trial of a nutraceutical supplement vs. placebo to measure its glucose lowering effect in generally healthy adults before and after a simple sugars meal. Subjects reported to the test clinic on multiple days to receive placebo or treatment, a simple sugars meal, as well as pre-and postprandial blood glucose measurement (modified oral glucose tolerance test). Each subject served as his or her own control and thirty-one subjects completed the trial with at least one oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with the nutraceutical supplement and placebo. Statistical analysis revealed the nutraceutical supplement significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels by 36% and 59% at 45 and 60 minutes, respectively (***P<.001). The study was limited by its composition of primarily overweight females. Future studies will be required over longer periods in more heterogeneous and larger groups to determine the long-term effect of this supplement on blood glucose levels in terms of prophylaxis or treatment for DM II.
    American Journal of Translational Research 02/2011; 3(2):219-25. · 3.23 Impact Factor