Article

Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 2.2). 05/2007; 27(4):595-9. DOI: 10.1592/phco.27.4.595
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and most patients with the disease have type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of media attention after a study was published in 2003. Although the efficacy of cinnamon in patients with diabetes has not been established, many patients seek other therapies and supplement their prescribed pharmacologic therapy with cinnamon. We conducted a literature search, limited to English-language human studies, using MEDLINE (1966-August 2006), EMBASE (1980-August 2006), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2006), and Iowa Drug Information Service (1966-August 2006). References from articles and clinical trials were reviewed for additional sources; no abstracts were reviewed. We found two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trials and one prospective, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes; a total of 164 patients were involved in these trials. Two of the studies reported modest improvements in lowering blood glucose levels with cinnamon supplementation in small patient samples. One trial showed no significant difference between cinnamon and placebo in lowering blood glucose levels. Overall, cinnamon was well tolerated. These data suggest that cinnamon has a possible modest effect in lowering plasma glucose levels in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. However, clinicians are strongly urged to refrain from recommending cinnamon supplementation in place of the proven standard of care, which includes lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, and insulin therapy.

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    • "When used in patients with diabetes or taking antidiabetic medications as, based on invitro and animal evidence, cinnamon has demonstrated lowering of blood glucose levels and acted as an insulin mimetic [6, 18, 29, 41, 56, 95, 121, 185, 200, 208, 223, 225, 228, 229, 252, 271, 309, 344, 367, 390–392, 405, 460, 461, 474, 481, 558]. Human data, however, have demonstrated conflicting results [13] [22] [33] [121] [242] [378] [476] [510]. When used in patients with autoimmune diseases or those who use immunosuppressants, as cinnamon has been found to have immunomodulatory effects in animal and in-vitro studies [244, 342, 343, 444]. "
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    • "Studies related to a-glucosidase inhibition has involved mostly on the use of plant extracts and some traditional foods (Fujita et al., 2003; Djomeni et al., 2006). The C. verum has received major attention due to its high inhibitory activity of a-glucosidase (Ranilla et al., 2010) which helps to lower blood glucose concentrations in patients with diabetes type2 (Pham et al., 2007) (Fig. 6). "
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    • "Although there is evidence to support the use of each ingredient in this supplement, there is also conflicting evidence. Some researchers have reported that cinnamon is ineffective at reducing blood glucose levels [22], while others report that cinnamon is effective at reducing blood glucose levels [23]. It is important for future studies to be mechanism-based in order to better elucidate the bioactivity and possible synergies of the ingredients. "
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