Mukuddem-Petersen J, Stonehouse OW, Jerling JC, Hanekom SM, White Z. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial. Br J Nutr 97, 1144-1153

School of Computer, Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Potchefstroom, South Africa.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 07/2007; 97(6):1144-53. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507682944
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.

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Available from: Janine Mukuddem-Petersen, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Kernel, which is the edible part of the nut, contains 47.8 g of crude fat, 29.9 g of carbohydrate, 16.8 g of protein and 574 kcal of energy per 100 g of intake (Brufau et al., 2006). Epidemiological studies showed that, frequent consumption of cashew kernels reduced incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cholesterol-level, hypertension and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women (Mukuddem-Petersen et al., 2007). Post-harvest handling and storage of cashew nuts starts immediately after harvesting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Moisture content and pH values are very important factors for fungal growth of roasted cashew nuts. A survey to investigate storage practices of roasted cashew nuts was conducted along the Coastal regions. Physicochemical properties (moisture content and pH values) of roasted cashew nuts from processors and vendors were also evaluated. From the survey, it was found that, immediately after roasting, cashew nuts were stored in plastic buckets (87.5%) and other materials such as paper boxes (12.5%). For retailing purposes, plastic films (polyethylene bags) were the main packaging materials used (97.5%) and paper wrappings (2.5%) respectively. The moisture content were in a range of 3.72 ± 0.31 to 4.36 ± 0. 15 and 3.80 ± 0.19 to 4.59 ± 1.85% for roasted cashew nuts from processors and vendors respectively. The pH values of roasted cashew nuts from processors and vendors were 6.21 ± 0.10 to 6.52 ± 0.21 and 6.37 ± 0.15 to 6.58 ± 0.07 respectively. The pH values observed were in a range which is conducive for fungal growth and toxin production. Therefore, a need to ascertain physicochemical quality as pre-determined factors for fungal growth in roasted cashew nuts is relevant to ensure quality and public health safety.
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    • "Subjects fed Fig. 6. Body weight level of human subjects with the metabolic syndrome during intervention studies with cashew nut and walnut diets for 8 wk [49]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive image of nuts. Nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, such as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic benefits, among other functional properties. However, although nuts possess these many health benefits, their consumption has been hampered by a lack of adequate information regarding those benefits. In addition, because nuts are energy-dense foods with high-fat content, there is a misconception among consumers that increased consumption may lead to unwanted gain in body weight with the risk of developing overweight/obesity. Nonetheless, available epidemiologic studies and short-term controlled feeding trials have supported the theory that the inclusion of nuts in the typical diet does not induce weight gain, despite an expected increase in total caloric intake. To address the misperception about nuts and body weight gain, the present review focuses mainly on the relation between nut consumption and body weight gain, in the context of the many health benefits of nuts.
    Nutrition 11/2012; 28(11-12):1089-97. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.004 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, some studies have found a significant reduction in fasting insulin (Casas-Agustench et al., 2011; Tapsell et al. 2009) or a significant improvement in insulin resistance (Casas-Agustench et al., 2011). However, none have reported a significant reduction in glycated proteins as a marker of long-term glycemic control (Lovejoy et al., 2002; Scott et al., 2003; Tapsell et al., 2004; Estruch et al., 2006; Mukuddem-Petersen et al., 2007; Casas-Agustench et al., 2011; Tapsell et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2010). In light of recent evidence showing that the combination of the 2 h post-meal glucose levels and fasting blood glucose allow for better estimation of risk both for diabetes and CVD than the fasting blood glucose alone (Sorkin et al., 2005; International Diabetes Federation, 2007); further studies that examine the effect of nuts on post-meal glycemia are warranted. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary strategies that reduce post-prandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). This may be achieved by addition of high-quality protein and fat contained in pistachio nuts, to carbohydrate-containing foods or meals. A total of 10 healthy volunteers (3 males, 7 females); aged 48.3±6.4 years; Body mass index (BMI) 28.0±4.8 kg/m(2) participated in two studies. Study 1 assessed the dose-response effect of 28, 56 and 84 g pistachios consumed alone or co-ingested with white bread (50 g available carbohydrate); Study 2 assessed the effective dose (56 g) of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia consumed with different commonly consumed carbohydrate foods (50 g available carbohydrate). Relative glycemic responses (RGRs) of study meals compared with white bread, were assessed over the 2 h post-prandial period. The RGRs of pistachios consumed alone expressed as a percentage of white bread (100%) were: 28 g (5.7±1.8%); 56 g (3.8±1.8%); 84 g (9.3±3.2%), P<0.001. Adding pistachios to white bread resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the RGR of the composite meal; 28 g (89.1±6.0, P=0.100); 56 g (67.3±9.8, P=0.009); 84 g (51.5±7.5, P<0.001). Addition of 56 g pistachios to carbohydrate foods significantly reduced the RGR: parboiled rice (72.5±6.0) versus rice and pistachios (58.7±5.1) (P=0.031); pasta (94.8±11.4) versus pasta and pistachios (56.4±5.0) (P=0.025); whereas for mashed potatoes (109.0±6.6) versus potatoes and pistachios, (87.4±8.0) (P=0.063) the results approached significance. Pistachios consumed alone had a minimal effect on post-prandial glycemia and when taken with a carbohydrate meal attenuated the RGR. The beneficial effects of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia could, therefore, be part of the mechanism by which nuts reduce the risk of diabetes and CHD.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 03/2011; 65(6):696-702. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2011.12 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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