Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Janine Mukuddem-Petersen, Jun 14, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1 % fat milk, 1·5 % fat yogurt and 34 % fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22 % and 0·42 v. 0·39 % of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake.British Journal Of Nutrition 01/2015; 113(03):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514003894 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although several studies have assessed the effects of nut consumption (tree nuts, peanuts, and soy nuts) on blood pressure (BP), the results are conflicting. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effect of nut consumption on BP. The databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for RCTs carried out between 1958 and October 2013 that reported the effect of consuming single or mixed nuts (including walnuts, almonds, pistachios, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, peanuts, and soy nuts) on systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) as primary or secondary outcomes in adult populations aged ≥18 y. Relevant articles were identified by screening the abstracts and titles and the full text. Studies that evaluated the effects for <2 wk or in which the control group ingested different healthy oils were excluded. Mean ± SD changes in SBP and DBP in each treatment group were recorded for meta-analysis. Twenty-one RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest that nut consumption leads to a significant reduction in SBP in participants without type 2 diabetes [mean difference (MD): -1.29; 95% CI: -2.35, -0.22; P = 0.02] but not in the total population. Subgroup analyses of different nut types suggest that pistachios, but not other nuts, significantly reduce SBP (MD: -1.82; 95% CI: -2.97, -0.67; P = 0.002). Our study suggests that pistachios (MD: -0.80; 95% CI: -1.43, -0.17; P = 0.01) and mixed nuts (MD: -1.19; 95% CI: -2.35, -0.03; P = 0.04) have a significant reducing effect on DBP. We found no significant changes in DBP after the consumption of other nuts. Total nut consumption lowered SBP in participants without type 2 diabetes. Pistachios seemed to have the strongest effect on reducing SBP and DBP. Mixed nuts also reduced DBP. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2015; 101(5). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.091595 · 6.92 Impact Factor
- 03/2014; 9(1):e45. DOI:10.1016/j.gheart.2014.03.1370