Energy, macro- and micronutrient intake among a true longitudinal group of South African adolescents at two interceptions (2000 and 2003): the Birth-to-Twenty (Bt20) Study.
ABSTRACT This study reports on the energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes of a true longitudinal group of 143 urban black South African children from the Birth-to-Twenty (Bt20) study at two interceptions (2000 and 2003) when they were 10 and 13 years old, respectively.
Subjects resided in the urban Johannesburg/Soweto area of the Gauteng Province in South Africa. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The coded data were analysed using SAS.
Mean daily intake of energy, all six macronutrients and most micronutrients (17/19) increased from 2000 to 2003. Of the 19 micronutrients investigated, the mean daily intake of eight (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin) fell below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) at both interceptions. More than 70% of the children consumed less than the RDA for these same eight nutrients. From 2000 to 2003, there was a decrease in the percentage of children falling below the RDA for energy (from 73 to 59%), but an increase in the percentage of children falling below the RDA for most of the micronutrients. There was a positive percentage change in mean daily intake for all 26 macro- and micronutrients from 2000 to 2003.
Mean daily intake of nutrients increased from 2000 to 2003, but intakes for most micronutrients were still below the RDA at both interceptions for a large percentage of the children. The study has provided valuable information on the nutrient intake and change in intake over time among a longitudinal group of South African adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) in South Africa was to determine the nutrient intakes and anthropometric status of children (1-9 years old), as well as factors that influence their dietary intake. This was a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of all children aged 1-9 years in South Africa. A nationally representative sample with provincial representation was selected using 1996 Census information. Of the 3120 children who were originally sampled data were obtained from 2894, a response rate of 93%. The sociodemographic status of each household was assessed by a questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 24-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire from the caregivers of the children. Food purchasing practices were determined by means of a food procurement questionnaire. Hunger was assessed by a modified hunger scale questionnaire. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: height, weight, head circumference and arm circumference. At the national level, stunting (height-for-age below minus two standard deviations (< -2SD) from the reference median) was by far the most common nutritional disorder, affecting nearly one in five children. The children least affected (17%) were those living in urban areas. Even with regard to the latter, however, children living in informal urban areas were more severely affected (20%) compared with those living in formal urban areas (16%). A similar pattern emerged for the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age < -2SD), with one in 10 children being affected at the national level. Furthermore, one in 10 (13%) and one in four (26%) children aged 1-3 years had an energy intake less than half and less than two-thirds of their daily energy needs, respectively. For South African children as a whole, the intakes of energy, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamins A, D, C and E, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and folic acid were below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. At the national level, data from the 24-hour recalls indicated that the most commonly consumed food items were maize, sugar, tea, whole milk and brown bread. For South African children overall, one in two households (52%) experienced hunger, one in four (23%) were at risk of hunger and only one in four households (25%) appeared food-secure. The NFCS indicated that a large majority of households were food-insecure and that energy deficit and micronutrient deficiencies were common, resulting in a high prevalence of stunting. These results were used as motivation for the introduction of mandatory fortification in South Africa.Public Health Nutrition 09/2005; 8(5):533-43. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In addition to frequency of consumption, a food frequency questionnaire may assess amount consumed, often by using food models, and the stability of diet. A food frequency interview directed at preformed vitamin A and beta-carotene was administered to 130 cases and 309 controls in an ongoing population-based case-control study of lung cancer in New Mexico. The questionnaire measured frequency, amount, and stability of consumption for 55 food items. Different combinations of responses to these three types of questions were used to calculate indices of total vitamin A consumption. The index based on frequency alone had the lowest value and increased significantly when amount was combined with frequency. Consideration of past consumption had relatively little effect on absolute and relative estimates of intake. Spearman rank order correlations between index pairs were high. These results suggest that the use of frequency alone is appropriate when the objective of data collection is to establish subjects' relative intake of specific nutrients.American Journal of Epidemiology 11/1984; 120(4):572-81. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A survey was conducted in the Cape Town metropolitan area in 1990 to determine the dietary intake and anthropometric status of 3-6 year-old African children (N = 163). Dietary data obtained from 24-hour recalls revealed that mean energy intake (5200 kJ) was low and that mean intakes of most nutrients fell considerably below the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). The average diet included an adequate number of portions from the meat and cereal groups, but was inadequate with respect to the milk and fruit/vegetable groups when compared with the recommendations of the Department of Health Services and Welfare. The macronutrient energy distribution was within prudent dietary guidelines, with 28.1% of energy (E) being obtained from total fat, 63.7% from carbohydrate and 13.2% from protein. Anthropometric profiles expressed in terms of the National Centre for Health Statistics' (NCHS) standards, revealed evidence of growth retardation and wasting in this population, coexisting with emergent obesity. The development of a nutrition and health policy to address the problems of both deficit and excess represents a pressing challenge.East African medical journal 12/1994; 71(11):695-702.