Chromoscopy-guided endomicroscopy increases the diagnostic yield of intraepithelial neoplasia in ulcerative colitis.
ABSTRACT Because of the large number of biopsy specimens, surveillance colonoscopy in ulcerative colitis (UC) is currently time consuming and significant flat lesions still may be missed. In this study we assessed the value of combined chromoscopy and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of intraepithelial neoplasias in a randomized controlled trial.
A total of 161 patients with long-term UC in clinical remission were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to undergo conventional colonoscopy or chromoscopy with endomicroscopy. Eight patients were excluded because of insufficient bowel preparation. In the conventional colonoscopic group (n = 73), random biopsy examinations and targeted biopsy examinations were performed. In the endomicroscopy group (n = 80), circumscribed mucosal lesions were identified by chromoscopy and evaluated for targeted biopsy examination by endomicroscopy. The primary outcome analysis was based on the detection of neoplasias.
By using chromoscopy with endomicroscopy, 4.75-fold more neoplasias could be detected (P = .005) than with conventional colonoscopy, although 50% fewer biopsy specimens (P = .008) were required. If only circumscribed lesions would have been biopsied in the first group, the total number of biopsy specimens could have been reduced by more than 90%. A total of 5580 confocal endomicroscopic images from 134 circumscribed lesions were compared with histologic results. The presence of neoplastic changes could be predicted by endomicroscopy with high accuracy (sensitivity, 94.7%; specificity, 98.3%; accuracy, 97.8%).
Endomicroscopy based on in vivo histology can determine if UC lesions identified by chromoscopy should undergo biopsy examination, thereby increasing the diagnostic yield and reducing the need for biopsy examinations. Thus, chromoscopy-guided endomicroscopy may lead to significant improvements in the clinical management of UC.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC), although the overall incidence of IBD-associated CRC has been diminishing in recent decades in western countries. As demonstrated in previous studies, the risk of CRC in IBD increases with longer duration, extent of colitis, a familial history of CRC, coexistent primary sclerosing cholangitis, and the degree of inflammation. The pathogenesis of CRC in IBD is poorly understood. Similar to sporadic CRC, IBD-associated CRC is a consequence of sequential episodes of genomic alteration. Multiple inter-related pathways, including immune response by mucosal inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, and intestinal microbiota, are also involved the pathogenesis of IBD-associated CRC. Continuing colonic inflammation appears to be a factor in the development of CRC; therefore, anti-inflammatory agents such as 5-aminosalicylate compounds and immune modulators have been considered as potential chemopreventive agents. Colonoscopic surveillance is widely accepted as being effective in reducing the risk of IBD-associated CRC, although no clear evidence has confirmed that surveillance colonoscopy prolongs survival in patients with extensive colitis. The traditional recommendation has been quadrantic random biopsies throughout the entire colon; however, several guidelines now have endorsed chromoendoscopy with a target biopsy because of increasing diagnostic yields and reduced workloads for endoscopists and pathologists. New technologies such as narrow band imaging, confocal endomicroscopy, and autofluorescence imaging have not yet been confirmed as surveillance strategies in IBD.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 08/2014; 20(29):9872-9881.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), and key contributing factors include chronic colonic inflammation and the extent and duration of disease. This increase in risk is more likely to result from chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa than from any clearly defined genetic predisposition. However, globally, the true magnitude of this risk is debatable, since results from different studies are heterogeneous in terms of geographical and methodological variables. The prevalence of IBD-related CRC in the Asia-Pacific region ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% and a recent study found that the cumulative incidence of IBD-related CRC is comparable to that in Western countries. However, the CRC mortality rate in the Asia-Pacific region is on the rise compared with that in Western countries, and a few Asian countries show particularly rapid upward trends in CRC incidence. Although our understanding of the molecular and clinical basis for IBD-related CRC has improved substantially, our means of prevention, endoscopic surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery remain modest at best. Furthermore, published data on IBD-related CRC in the Asia-Pacific region is lacking, and this review addresses many aspects including epidemiology, natural history, etiopathogenesis, morphology, and biological behaviors of IBD-related CRC and sporadic CRC in the Asia-Pacific region. In this review, we will also discuss the risk factors for CRC in IBD patients, endoscopic technology screening, and surveillance programs and management strategies for IBD-related CRC.Intestinal research. 07/2014; 12(3):194-204.
Article: New aspects of modern endoscopy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal-tract is strictly dependent on early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. However, small, flat or depressed neoplastic lesions remain difficult to detect with these technologies thereby limiting their value for polyp and cancer screening. At the same time computer and chip technologies have undergone major technological changes which have greatly improved endoscopic diagnostic investigation. New imaging modalities and techniques are very notable aspects of modern endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy or filter-aided colonoscopy (virtual chromoendoscopy) with high definition endoscopes is able to enhance the detection and characterization of lesions. Finally, confocal laser endomicroscopy provides histological confirmation of the presence of neoplastic changes. The developing techniques around colonoscopy such as the retro-viewing colonoscope, the balloon-colonoscope or the 330-degrees-viewing colonoscope try to enhance the efficacy by reducing the adenoma miss rate in right-sided, non-polypoid lesions. Colon capsule endoscopy is limited to identifying cancer and not necessarily small adenomas. Preliminary attempts have been made to introduce this technique in clinical routine.World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy. 08/2014; 6(8):334-44.