Because of the large number of biopsy specimens, surveillance colonoscopy in ulcerative colitis (UC) is currently time consuming and significant flat lesions still may be missed. In this study we assessed the value of combined chromoscopy and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of intraepithelial neoplasias in a randomized controlled trial.
A total of 161 patients with long-term UC in clinical remission were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to undergo conventional colonoscopy or chromoscopy with endomicroscopy. Eight patients were excluded because of insufficient bowel preparation. In the conventional colonoscopic group (n = 73), random biopsy examinations and targeted biopsy examinations were performed. In the endomicroscopy group (n = 80), circumscribed mucosal lesions were identified by chromoscopy and evaluated for targeted biopsy examination by endomicroscopy. The primary outcome analysis was based on the detection of neoplasias.
By using chromoscopy with endomicroscopy, 4.75-fold more neoplasias could be detected (P = .005) than with conventional colonoscopy, although 50% fewer biopsy specimens (P = .008) were required. If only circumscribed lesions would have been biopsied in the first group, the total number of biopsy specimens could have been reduced by more than 90%. A total of 5580 confocal endomicroscopic images from 134 circumscribed lesions were compared with histologic results. The presence of neoplastic changes could be predicted by endomicroscopy with high accuracy (sensitivity, 94.7%; specificity, 98.3%; accuracy, 97.8%).
Endomicroscopy based on in vivo histology can determine if UC lesions identified by chromoscopy should undergo biopsy examination, thereby increasing the diagnostic yield and reducing the need for biopsy examinations. Thus, chromoscopy-guided endomicroscopy may lead to significant improvements in the clinical management of UC.
"Studies have shown the high accuracy (96.7%) with which CLE allows differentiation from low-grade to high-grade intra-epithelial colorectal neoplasia. Moreover, chromoendoscopy together with targeted CLE is able to increase the diagnostic yield of intra-epithelial neoplasia by 4.75-fold (P = 0.005).56,57 Unfortunately, several factors are currently working against CLE, one of which includes the cost of a CLE unit and questionable reimbursement rates. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence.
Journal of Cancer 03/2014; 5(4):272-280. DOI:10.7150/jca.8871 · 3.27 Impact Factor
"Second, a validated four-grade CLE classification was applied in this study. Compared with the systematic Mainz’s CLE classification which involves the assessment of crypts, cell infiltration, and vessels , this classification might be easier to learn for the beginners using CLE. In this study, the fluorescein leakage into the crypt lumen was incorporated into the original classification published previously , which indicates local barrier dysfunction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of inflammatory activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is crucial to the prediction of relapse. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an accurate tool for assessing inflammatory activity in UC patients. This study aimed to evaluate whether CLE could be used to predict UC relapse reliably.
In total, forty-three patients with documented UC were analyzed in this study. Patients identified as having obvious active inflammation by conventional colonoscopy were excluded. The mucosa of each patient's sigmoid colon and rectum was assessed by CLE before targeted biopsies were taken. The patients were then followed up for at least 12 months to evaluate relapse according to the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index. The correlation between CLE classification and UC relapse was evaluated.
Seventeen of 20 patients with histologically confirmed normal or chronic inflammation were diagnosed as having non-active inflammation by real-time CLE and 22 of 23 patients with histologically confirmed acute inflammation were diagnosed as having active inflammation by CLE. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CLE in real-time diagnosis of active inflammation were 95.7%, 85%, and 90.7%, respectively. The agreement between CLE and conventional histology was excellent (kappa value = 0.812). Two of 18 (11.1%) patients who were classified as having non-active inflammation by CLE relapsed, while 16 of 25 (64%) patients classified as having as active inflammation relapsed. The relapse rate of patients with active inflammation was significantly higher than of those with non-active inflammation (P < 0.001).
CLE is comparable to conventional histology in predicting relapse in patients with UC.
"CLE based on tissue fluorescence uses local and/or intravenous contrast agents to generate images. The ECS is based on the principle of contact light microscopy   . ECS observation also requires pre-treatment with methylene blue or toluidine blue staining . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are various diagnostic approaches for parasitic infections, including microscopic identification of parasites in the stool or biopsy samples from the intestinal mucosa, antigen testing of feces or serum, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and serology. Endoscopy is sometimes used for direct confirmation of parasite infection and as a therapeutic option for removal. In recent years, innovations in endoscopy have advanced remarkably with regards to endoscopic devices as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopical methods. Several new endoscopic devices are now used for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to parasitic infections. In the present article, we have focused on in vivo imaging of parasitic infections. In vivo images of parasites were obtained using various endoscopic methods such as high-definition endoscopy, super-magnifying endoscopy, and video capsule endoscopy.
Parasitology International 08/2013; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2013.08.003 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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