Article

Children exposed to methamphetamine use and manufacture

UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, 1640 S. Sepulveda Boulevard, Ste. 200, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA.
Child abuse & neglect (Impact Factor: 2.34). 04/2007; 38(11). DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.06.009
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The children of methamphetamine (MA) users and manufacturers are at high risk of neglect and abuse and physical harm from exposure to the drug and the chemicals used to produce it. This study is the first to document the epidemiology of children removed from home-based MA labs and their familial outcomes. Analyses are predominantly descriptive for 99 cases of drug-endangered children recorded from 2001-2003 in Los Angeles County. Neglect was substantiated in 93% of the cases; 97% of the cases resulted in child protective services detainment. Eighty percent had a documented medical diagnosis, most often related to exposure to MA manufacture.
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    ABSTRACT: Although methamphetamine use has been declining, it continues to be problematic among parents in the child welfare system. We examined the assertion that parental methamphetamine use is more detrimental for children than abuse of other substances. Using administrative data (N = 2,465) from a treatment program, we compared parents reporting abuse of methamphetamine (48%) with parents reporting alcohol only (11%) or abuse of other illegal drugs (41%) on a number of variables. Methamphetamine users were more likely to be female, White, have less education, be unemployed, and not be in a committed relationship, and their children were significantly more likely to be placed.
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution, and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social, and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing. The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Ninety-one children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA, and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine, and hair were 6.9%, 22.1%, and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n = 5), and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP, and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children.
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